Select fields with good drainage, sandy loam to heavy clay soil textures. Avoid fields
that had cereal crops and forage grasses in the previous year to reduce disease pressure
and optimize yields.
Variety performance, acreage, seeding date and crop rotation affects on yield.
There are no seed treatments available.
April 15 to May 15. Triticale must be sown as early as possible for maximum yields.
2 to 3 bu/acre depending on seed size to achieve a plant population of 24-30 plants/ft2.
Circumstances requiring heavier rates of seeding are large seed size, low germination, abundant moisture, deep seeding, heavy-textured soils, rough seed bed and heavy weed pressure.
Circumstances requiring heavier rates of
seeding are large seed size, low germination, abundant moisture, deep seeding,
heavy-textured soils, rough seed bed and heavy weed pressure.
1 to 2 inches. Triticale should not be placed deeper than necessary to ensure contact with moist soil. Decreased emergence and weaker plants may result from deeper seeding.
For specific recommendations, have your soil tested. If soil analyses are not available, a general recommendation is as follows:
Apply 0-20 lb/acre N following fallow or legume breaking, 20-40 lb/acre N following grass and grass-legume breaking, and 40-60 lb/acre N following stubble. A shortage of nitrogen will significantly reduce yield. The primary nitrogen deficiency symptom is leaf yellowing, starting with the older leaves.
Apply phosphate at 30-40 lb/acre. The primary phosphorus deficiency symptom is leaf purpling/browning, starting at the tips of older leaves on seedlings.
On sandy textured or organic soils, apply potassium at rates of 15-30 lb/acre. Where required, potassium should be placed with the seed. Deficiency symptoms are difficult to detect but include short inter-nodes and weak stems. To confirm suspect deficiencies, conduct a tissue test.
Low sulphur levels can occur in any Manitoba soils. When required, apply 15 lb/acre of sulphate sulphur.
Further information on Fertilizer use in Manitoba
There are a limited number of herbicides available for weed control.
Weed seeds that cannot be cleaned out, and are considered foreign matter causing downgrading, are: cow cockle, ragweed, tartary buckwheat, vetch and wild oats, non-cereal domestic grains such as peas, corn, domestic buckwheat, lentils and cereal grains.
Triticale is slightly more susceptible to
than wheat. If ergot is found in a field,
rotate with a non-susceptible
crop for one year to reduce incidence. Cultivate fields following harvest to bury ergot
bodies at least two inches. Mow grass headlands and roadsides before heading to reduce
spread. If the seed source contains ergot bodies, storage for more than one year reduces
their viability to almost zero. Ergot body levels in the harvested grain above 0.1 per
cent may be toxic in livestock feed.
There are no fungicide seed treatments available. To reduce risk of incidence of leaf rust, stem rust, damping off and fusarium, avoid sowing on land that had barley, rye, triticale and wheat the previous year.
Also refer to Scouting for Diseases.
For information on varietal differences to disease susceptibility consult Seed Manitoba.
Triticale is more susceptible to sprouting in the swath than hard red wheat. Straight combing is advisable, since it has been successful in minimizing sprouting damage. If swathing is required, it may be swathed, without loss of yield, bushel weight or quality, when the kernels have 35 per cent moisture or less.
Combine settings should be similar to wheat. Care should be taken to reduce the number of cracked kernels by slowing the cylinder speed.
Triticale with a moisture content of 14 per cent can be safely combined without the need for drying. Kernels with a moisture content of 20 per cent can be combined and dried without loss of quality.
Moulds and mites tend to be inactive when storage moisture is below 13 per cent. If storage temperatures are below 8° C, 3° C and -8° C, insects, moulds and mites, respectively, are inactive.
For specific information on:
seed treatments, refer to the current Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives Guide to Crop Protection.
integrated management of weeds, crop pests and diseases, refer to Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives Field Scouting Guide.
pesticides, refer to the current Guide to Crop Protection.
optimizing fertilizer use, refer to Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives Soil Fertility Guide.
making varietal choices based on agronomic characteristics, refer to the current Seed Manitoba.
These and other Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives publications are available from your local extension office.
For further information, contact your GO representative.