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Crop Report: Issue 14, August 4, 2015


Weekly Provincial Summary

  • Winter wheat and fall rye harvest is underway in Manitoba. Preliminary reports indicate winter wheat yields range from 60 to 85 bu/acre, with low levels of fusarium damaged kernels in harvested samples.
  • There are also a few fields of spring wheat, barley and field peas harvested last week.
  • Swathing or preharvest applications in the earliest-seeded spring cereal fields has started.
  • The majority of spring seeded crops are either grain-filling or podding, with some of the later seeded crops finishing up flowering.

Southwest Region

In the Southwest Region, warmer temperatures are speeding crop maturity. A large storm system that moved from Pierson to Hamiota on July 27, resulted in varying amounts of precipitation; rainfall amounts ranged from 25 to 125 mm across the region. The storm system also resulted in an EF2 tornado that tracked from south of Tilston to north of Virden, spending approximately 3 hours on the ground. Crops such as corn, sunflower and oats were severely lodged in the path of the tornado, whereas areas further from the path location also sustained heavy crop lodging. Some hail damage in Souris, Wawanesa and Minto areas was reported as well.
Most winter cereals are close to physiological maturity. Low fusarium head blight levels in winter wheat and low ergot levels in fall rye continue to be reported. Initial winter wheat harvest has begun in the Brandon and eastern areas of the region, with average yields reported.
Canola crops responded favourably to the cooler temperatures and recent rainfall. The earliest canola fields are at the pod filling stage of development, while most reseeded fields are finishing flowering. Some early seeded barley, wheat and oats are also nearing maturity, whereas late seeded cereals are still in hard dough stage.
Flax fields are coming out of flower and are experiencing some lodging due to the recent heavy thundershowers. Field peas are starting to dry down. Some pea harvest has begun in the Rivers area with average to slightly above average yields reported. Increased levels of mycosphaerella are being reported in later seeded field peas as a result of the cooler and wetter conditions.
Corn is in full tassel. Sunflowers entered early to mid-flower stages. Lygus bugs are affecting some sunflower stands. Soybeans continue to respond well to the excellent growing conditions with many crops now advanced into the late R3 (pod initiation) to R4 (full pod) stage of development.
Hay and pasture conditions across the Southwest Region continue to be variable. First cut hay is complete and native hay is being harvested. Generally, yields are 50 to 75% of average. Second cut growth is advancing well where first cut was taken early and there is adequate moisture. Harvest of greenfeed cereals are beginning. Dugout levels remain steady at 80% full.

Northwest Region

A major weather system moving through most of the Northwest Region over the past week resulted in 38 to 51 mm of rain reported for most of the area, and 101 to 152 mm reported in the McCreary and Ste Amelie areas. Daytime temperatures were warm with brisk to strong winds reported. Soil moisture conditions improved over the past week and are adequate in most parts of the Northwest Region.
Crops in the Northwest Region are reported to range from good to poor condition. Some of the heavier crops lodged as a result of the heavy rains and winds experienced last week, particularly canola.
Approximately 10% of the winter wheat crop is in the dough stage of development and 90% is mature. About 10% of the spring wheat crop is at the milk stage of growth with the remaining 90% in the dough stage. Some rye and barley has been harvested in the southern part of the region. Preharvest glyphosate applications have begun.
Canola improved significantly over the week as the crop continues to develop rapidly. Approximately 50% of the canola crop is at some stage of flowering while about 50% is podded. Approximately 90% of the corn crop is in the V6 to V13 stage of growth and 10% is tasseling. For soybeans, 30% of the crop is flowering with 70% podded. About 30% of the flax crop is flowering with the remaining 70% at the boll stage of growth.
Crop insect pest activity throughout the region has been low, and producers continue to monitor crops closely for any signs of insect pest activity.
It is estimated that 75% of first cut hay is complete with below average yields in most parts of the Northwest Region. Cutting of native hay has begun. Harvesting of annual forages for greenfeed and silage is also underway. Pastures are in average to good condition.

Central Region

Warm and humid weather conditions continued in the early week, allowed for rapid crop growth in the Central Region. Temperatures moderated mid-week. Most areas have adequate moisture and heavy morning dews are common. Unsettled conditions remain and showers and thundershowers continue. Rainfall amounts varied from a few millimeters to as much as 35 mm. There are reports of damaging hail in the Letellier, Dominion City and Ridgeville areas. Hail damage resulted in defoliation of soybean plants, pod loss and shattering in canola, and flattened sunflowers; fields are being assessed. Rain and winds resulted in many lodged cereal crops.
Cereal crops throughout the region look good and some of the lodged cereal fields have recovered to a certain degree. However, harvest will be a challenge in many spring wheat fields and yield loss of some degree is expected. Fusarium head blight levels appear to be much lower than last year in both winter and spring wheat.
Harvest of winter wheat and fall rye has begun. Early yields of winter wheat are reported in the 60 to 85 bu/ac range. Some spring wheat is harvested; no yield reports to date. Harvest management applications continue in spring wheat fields.
There is a wide range in canola development due to the varied seeding dates. Reseeded canola fields from the late May frost are almost done flowering. Some canola fields have been opened up with a swathed round or two; the odd field has been swathed. Many fields are lodged due to heavy winds.
Sunflowers are flowering. Monitoring continues for insects, and staging is being done for fungicide application. Sunflower beetle numbers are low. Corn is growing rapidly. Fields are silking with cobs are starting to form.
Soybeans continue to flower and form pods. Some fields are showing increasing damage due to excess moisture and subsequent root rots. Some fungicide applications are being made. Reports of soybean aphids are becoming more common, but are well below economic threshold to date.
Edible beans are flowering, and fungicide applications continue. Environmental conditions are conducive for white mould. Bacterial blight is reported in cranberry and kidney types; other varieties can also be affected. With recent heavy rains some fields are showing stress symptoms of yellowing. Overall most fields look good. Pea fields are mostly done flowering and the majority podded.
Diamondback moth and bertha armyworm trap counts are average to low for the season indicating a low to moderate risk of damage from these canola pests. Lygus bugs are found in canola fields, but numbers are below threshold levels in most cases. Insecticide applications have taken place where sunflower head insect populations have warranted. Wild oat plants are emerging above the crops in patches, as are other later emerging weeds in thinner areas of fields. Weed growth is noticeable in lodged cereal fields.
Hay harvest continues in the Central Region but has been difficult with the high humidity and recent rains. Greenfeed is being cut for forage. Hay yields are expected to be near normal and at quantities sufficient for wintering supplies. Pastures are lush with abundant rain and warmer temperatures. Alfalfa weevil damage is visible in some of the alfalfa/grass fields.

Eastern Region

In the Eastern Region, the weather during the previous week was highly variable. Cool temperatures with drizzle alternated with sunny weather or significant rainfall that sometimes included isolated severe weather events. Rainfall accumulations ranged from trace amounts to over 30 mm. Some isolated, severe hailstorms occurred in southern districts. Across the Eastern Region, fields continue to show evidence of standing water and areas where crop is drowned out and is more prevalent in central and southern districts. Soil moisture conditions on crop land are rated as adequate to surplus.
Spring cereal crops are in the soft to hard dough growth stages. Winter wheat is mature and some harvesting and swathing started over the weekend. Canola is pod filling. Soybeans range from R3 to R5. Sunflowers are in R5 growth stages with corn silking. Damage from sclerotinia is noted in canola fields that were not sprayed with fungicide at flowering.
Across the region, the majority of hay and pasture lands are in good condition. Haying was back to full swing with 30 to 50% of the feed being put up. Second cut alfalfa is 50% completed. For first cut hay, it is estimated that 25% is standing, 15% is cut and 60% is baled or put up as silage. For second cut hay, it is estimated that 50% is standing, 20% is cut and 30% is baled or put up as silage. Quality is rated as good. Availability of livestock water is adequate.

Interlake Region

Precipitation and cooler temperatures were experienced in the Interlake Region last week. Rainfall amounts varied throughout the region. Moosehorn received the most precipitation with just over 40 mm, Selkirk 30 mm, and the rest of the region amounts between 10 to 20 mm of rainfall. Cool temperatures moved in with daytime highs between 20 to 25oC and night time temperatures dipping below 10oC.
Harvesting of winter wheat and barley has begun in the Interlake Region. Winter wheat crops are coming in with reports of yields in the 65 to 70 bu/ac range with little to no fusarium damaged kernels in samples. Barley yields are ranging from 70 to 80 bu/ac with good quality. Spring wheat and oats continue to mature with some spring wheat possibly receiving preharvest applications towards the end of the week, into the beginning of next week. Soybeans continue to flower and fill pods, corn is at the tassel stage and sunflowers are flowering.
Canola fields are nearly finished flowering with some early seeded fields starting to show coloured seeds in the bottom pods. Lygus bugs in canola are being monitored as populations are approaching thresholds in parts of the North Interlake. Some spraying occurring in alfalfa seed fields for weevils and lygus bugs. Timothy and other grass seed fields are being swathed with some fields going to be combined towards the end of the week.
Clearer weather allowed some much needed progress with haying this past week. Cereals have started to be cut and ensiled. Pastures are holding up quite well with the numerous showers during the past four weeks. Some second cut alfalfa has been taken with good yields; in some cases second cut yielded higher than first cut due to spring frosts and somewhat drier conditions in June. Availability of water for livestock is adequate. 

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