Agriculture

Crop Report: Issue 10, July 8, 2013

  

Weekly Provincial Summary

  •   Warm and dry weather conditions in many areas of Manitoba are advancing crops, as well as allowing producers to make good progress with haying operations and applications of herbicides and fungicides.
  • However, there are areas in Manitoba that received more precipitation over the past week, impacting crop development and plant stands, as well as increasing risk of disease and delaying haying operations.  

Southwest Region

The Southwest Region experienced another week of warm, humid and moist weather conditions. Rainfall amounts across the region varied from 10 to 80 mm with higher amounts reported in the Wasagaming, Erickson and Neepawa areas. Moisture levels across southern and now northern regions of the Southwest Region are reported as surplus with localized crop losses occurring due to standing water.
Disease pressure across all crops increased significantly as a result of the weather conditions. Fungicide control measures are ongoing in cereals, field peas, canola, and flax; progress is estimated at 50 to 60% complete.

Corn and soybean crops continue to benefit from increasing temperatures and frequent rainfall. Corn crop canopy closure has occurred in 50% of the planted acres, primarily in areas unaffected by excess moisture. Soybeans continue to out-perform most crops in dealing with the excess moisture conditions; 25 to 30% of the crop now in the bud stage of development.
Insect activity in cereals and oilseeds decreased over this past week with both flea beetle feeding in canola and cutworm injury in cereals, canola and flax decreasing. Alfalfa weevil feeding in alfalfa continued last week as cutting was delayed due to the humid and wet weather conditions. Bertha armyworm moth monitoring continue to see relatively low numbers across much of the Southwest Region with higher numbers only being reported in the Wawanesa and Killarney areas. Wheat midge activity is reported to be at relatively low levels.
 
Pasture and hay growth continues to improve over this past week due to the warmer temperatures and frequent rainfall. Most hay crops are in reproductive stages of development. Haying progress slowed over this past week with the high humidity and frequent showers. Only 10 to 20% of the first cut is reported as completed. Initial yield estimates of first cut alfalfa stands range from 80 to 85% of normal across the region due to early season dryness, frost, alfalfa weevil feeding and excess moisture. Water levels in sloughs and dugouts are now 95 to 100% of capacity in northern regions and 100% to over flowing in south western regions, with only minimal chance of slough or marsh hay being harvested.
 

Northwest Region

Early in the week, warm temperatures, high humidity and minimal winds prevailed throughout most of the Northwest Region. However, periods of unstable weather affected the region on Wednesday and Saturday. Scattered thunderstorms across a section through Gilbert Plains to Winnipegosis resulted in heavy precipitation where 100 to 150 mm of rainfall was reported, along with some crop lodging and hail. Some road infrastructure damage is still limiting field, pasture and livestock accessibility in certain areas. In the other areas of the region, total week precipitation amounts ranged from 10 mm around Ste. Rose to 50 mm. 
 
Crop development, stand consistency and crop conditions range from excellent to poor. Crop staging is variable depending on area of the region; crop development is generally less advanced through Winnipegosis, McCreary and The Pas. Overall, cereals are rated as 75% of the acres as good to fair and canola at 65% good to fair. Approximately 70% of the cereal crop acres are at tillering stages and 15% heading; canola at 70% rosette and 30% flowering. Corn crops are improving with the hot, humid conditions, ranging in development from the V3 to V4 stage. Localized water ponding in crops, forages and pastures is still evident in all areas, particularly in the low-lying areas. Crop death and yellowing from excessive moisture received the last two weeks has affected the later seeded, less advanced crops in particular. At this point, excess moisture is estimated to have impacted 10% of crop acres through the Northwest Region. To the east of the escarpment and at The Pas, more acres are affected, with some individual fields seeing 50 to 70% of the field impacted.
 
Initial herbicide and some secondary applications were completed as weather conditions allowed. Fungicide applications on cereals, canola and soybeans continued with many producers relying on aerial application. Where field conditions allowed, ground application was also used with some field rutting occurring.
 
Canola insect trap counts indicate Bertha armyworm moths are increasing slightly but numbers remain very low. Some localized high grasshopper populations on red clover have required insecticide applications.

Hay harvest progress remains very limited to date with only some acres cut before the rain. Very little has been baled and cut swaths remain in wet field conditions. Some forage stands have lodged and stands are maturing with quality degrading. Yields are expected to be average or below average. Flooded and wet pastures, and native hay lands in the Westlake sector, are improving somewhat; however, the low-lying areas and those acres near lake are currently under surplus moisture conditions. Dugout water levels are full in all areas.
 

Central Region

In the Central Region, crops are advancing rapidly with warmer temperatures. Much of the region saw little to no rain and many areas are looking for moisture. Isolated thundershowers are responsible for significant variability within a short distance. Trace amounts fell over most of the region with localized areas reporting amounts ranging from 10 to 30 mm. Standing water in areas with higher rainfall continues to be a concern. Crop yellowing is occurring in low lying areas and drowned out areas are evident. The warmer temperatures advanced crop damage in areas of excess moisture, especially with later seeded crops. Some crop lodging due to heavy rain and wind was reported.
Some acres remain unseeded due to excess moisture and may see forage seed and greenfeed planted.
Windy conditions continue to interfere with pesticide applications at times, but good progress was still made this past week. Herbicide applications are mostly complete with only some late seeded crops to be sprayed.
Growth is improving in most crops. However, many fields are uneven in both crop development and plant stands; crop is also shorter in height in some fields. Most cereal crops are at stem elongation stage, with many in flag leaf emergence to heading stage. The most advanced spring wheat fields have received fungicide applications for fusarium head blight. Leaf diseases are evident, especially in fields with cereal stubble from the previous year.

Most canola ranges from late rosette to bolting, with earlier seeded acres at early flower and to 40 to 50% bloom. Flea beetle feeding has dropped off in most fields. Reseeded fields are looking good. Fungicide applications for sclerotinia management continue. Blackleg lesions are reported in a number of fields, but most reports are coming from the southwest part of the region. Fungicide applications were made to lessen the impact of the disease.

Corn crops are improving due to hot humid conditions, with development ranging up to the V5 to V6 leaf stage. Soybeans range from first and second trifoliate and up, with early flowers showing in the most advanced fields. Second applications of herbicide are wrapping up.

Fall rye and winter wheat are headed and most fungicide applications are complete. Most fields are stagey and timing for fusarium head blight suppression, if necessary, will be difficult. The most advanced winter wheat fields are in the early milk stage.

Diamondback moth monitoring continues and some larvae were found. Trap counts are highest in eastern parts of the region. Higher bertha armyworm trap counts are being seen but numbers are still in the low risk range. Grasshopper activity increased. The headlands of a number of cereal and canola fields were sprayed, mostly in eastern and northwestern areas.

Baling of first cut hay continues with average yields expected for most areas. Excellent progress has been made in some areas of the region, while excess rain and high humidity has delayed progress in other areas. Alfalfa weevil pressure has advanced cutting and baling before optimum timing in some fields.
Most pastures are growing rapidly and are in good to excellent condition, although some still suffer due to adverse conditions. Dugouts are full.
 
 

Eastern Region

Rainfall amounts ranging from trace to 25 mm fell this past week in the Eastern Region. Crop land in the region is rated at 100% adequate, but precipitation would be welcomed in some areas of the region.

Crops in general are doing well across the Eastern Region. Crop stages are as follows: winter wheat is headed out, spring cereals range from stem elongation to head emergence, canola is at 60 to 100% flowering, soybean 20% vegetative and 80% flowering and corn ranges from V6 to V9 stage.

Fungicides on spring wheat and canola will be in progress as fields come into flower. The majority of herbicides applications are complete.

Monitoring for insects continues across the region, in particular grasshoppers in the northern areas of the region. Some fields saw threshold levels reached with spraying resulting. Fields heavily affected by grasshoppers tend to be located in areas where significant grasshopper hatch occurred, such as fields located next to grassy areas like lagoons or hayfields. Migration of lygus bugs into canola is occurring but the crop stage not advanced enough yet to have economic yield reductions. Some armyworms in forage seed crops and diamondback larvae in canola being found but no threshold levels of concern reported yet.

Haying continues in the Eastern Region with progress at 25% standing, 10 to 25% cut and 50 to 65% baled or silaged. In northern areas of the region, the harvest of alfalfa and alfalfa/grass fields for use as dairy feed is complete. Regrowth of these fields is good and a second cut can be expected within the next two weeks.
 
Greenfeed production is beginning. Barley is heading out and a couple of fields in the area were cut for silage. Roughly 75% of alfalfa, alfalfa/grass and tame hay fields intended for beef cattle feed were harvested as first cut hay/silage. Native grasses remain standing. In southern areas of the region haying is in full swing. Average percent of normal yields are reported as: alfalfa 95% of normal, grass/alfalfa 100%, other tame hay 95% and wild hay 60%.

Pasture conditions in the region are rated as 50 to 85% good to 10 to 25% fair and 0 to 25% poor in the region. Livestock water, including dugouts, is rated at 100% adequate.
 
 

Interlake Region

Scattered showers fell on the Interlake Region last week. Rainfall amounts ranged from 2 to 5 mm in the Arborg and Riverton area and up to 20 mm in the Woodlands area. The Broad Valley/Chatfield area had 50 mm of precipitation along with hail. Water is still ponding on fields that were hit hard last week. The warm temperatures and precipitation however are making for very good growing conditions throughout the Interlake Region.
Herbicide spraying is still ongoing. With the recent rainfalls some producers have to apply a second herbicide application due to a second flush of weeds. Fungicide spraying in winter wheat crops is completed across the Interlake Region. Spraying for fusarium head blight in spring wheat will be starting this week as crops near the flowering stage. Canola fields throughout the region are getting sprayed due to sclerotinia pressure. Canola crop staging is quite variable in some fields due to lack of precipitation in the spring, which is making it difficult to determine the proper timing to apply fungicides. Alfalfa seed fields will soon be getting sprayed for leaf and flower diseases. Pea and soybeans fields started to flower early in the week.
 
Hay yields are less than average but quality is good. There is weevil and plant bug damage on the alfalfa in hay stands. Pastures and dugout conditions are good.