Agriculture

Crop Report: Issue 3, May 19, 2015

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary

 
  • Provincially, seeding progress in Manitoba is estimated at 72% complete.
  • By region, seeding is 70% complete in the Southwest Region, 70% complete in the Northwest Region, 70 to 85% complete in the Central Region, 75% complete in the Eastern Region and 55 to 65% complete in the Interlake Region.
  • Many areas of Manitoba received precipitation and accumulations varied from zero to almost 100 mm.  Crop injury due to excessive moisture conditions is being assessed, as well as impact to crop emergence and plant stands.  Level of impact will depend on the stage of crop development and duration of the excessive moisture conditions.
  • Crops continue to emerge; however, slow emergence and growth is noted due to the on-going cool air and soil temperatures.
  • Temperatures below 0°C were recorded again throughout the week. To date, minimal crop damage is reported from the previous week’s frost events, largely in part due to crop type and/or very little crop emergence. Crop assessments will continue in the coming days for injury symptoms from the most recent frost events over the weekend. 

 

Southwest Region

The Southwest Region saw extreme weather conditions over the weekend.  Precipitation amounts range from 10 to 90 mm, combined with snowfall.  The southern portion of the region, including Pierson, Bede, Reston, Virden and Deloraine areas, received the most rainfall. Most of the northern areas including Russell, Shoal Lake and Hamiota received 10 to 25 mm. The wet conditions in some areas will result in seeding issues.  Frost events were recorded over several nights with temperatures of -2 to -6°C.  Winds of 90 km/h were also reported in some areas. Due to high moisture levels and slow crop emergence, frost damage in canola and flax is minimal. 

Good seeding progress in the Southwest Region was made prior to the rain and cool conditions. Overall seeding progress is 70% complete, with 85 to 90% of the spring wheat and field peas seeded, 50 to 75% barley and oats completed, and 50 to 60% of the canola crop seeded.  Some flax and corn acres are planted but the percentage is low. Very few producers have planted soybeans.
 
Early seeded cereals are emerging but are slow due to cool conditions. 
 
Winter cereal growth continues to improve with most crops in the 2 to 3 leaf stage; weed control measures will likely begin later this week.
 
There are no reports of insect damage in crops.
 
Moisture over last week is beneficial to pastures and forages.  However, the cool temperatures continue to slow growth.  Pastures remain at the 2 to 2.5 leaf stage.  Some cattle were moved to pasture; however, supplemental feeding is still required. Dugouts are more than 90% full to over capacity. In the extreme southwest area of the region, the ground continues to be saturated and access to dry pasture for livestock is a concern.
 

Northwest Region

Parts of the Northwest Region received variable amounts of precipitation over the weekend in the form of rain and/or snow.  Accumulations ranged from zero in The Pas and the Swan Valley to 13 to 51 mm of snow/rain in other parts of the region.  The higher amounts of precipitation occurred in the more southern parts of the region.  Soil conditions are variable with excessive moisture experienced in some localized pockets and dry conditions in others.  Night time temperatures for the region ranged from -2 to -6°C.  Extremely strong winds on Sunday resulted in soil blowing from exposed fields.  Crop damage from freezing temperatures, wind and excessive moisture is being assessed; the extent of crop injury is not yet known.

Good seeding progress was made throughout the Northwest Region over the past week; seeding is approximately 70% complete.  Approximately 90% of the cereal acres are seeded and 25% of those have emerged.  Approximately 50% of the canola crop is seeded, with less than 5% of the seeded acres emerged. Seeding progress for other crop types include: 50% of the flax crop, 90% of the field pea crop, 10% of the soybeans and 30% of the corn acres.
 
Weed growth is general throughout most parts of the region. Flea beetle activity continues in some areas where feeding is evident on volunteer canola plants.
    
Hay field and pasture growth still remains slow due to cooler temperatures including snow and frost.  Cattle on pastures require supplementation of feed. Water sources, such as dugouts and streams, continue to be excellent in supply. 
 

Central Region

Seeding continued through the early part of the week in the Central Region, but was halted by rain and snow.  Rains started on Wednesday, with much of the southern portions of the region receiving 15 to 40 mm precipitation through Thursday.  However, the whole region received rainfall over the weekend with total accumulations for the week ranging from 50 to 100 mm.  Snowfall was also received Sunday. There was localized flooding reported west of Altona. Temperatures dipped below 0°C throughout the region, with frost and ice forming on standing water in fields and drains.  Reports are variable, ranging from -1°C to as low as -4°C over a period of 2 to 4 hours.  There is concern regarding frost damage to emerged crops; assessments are ongoing.  Standing water in low areas is also expected to cause some crop damage.  Producers will be out of the fields until later this week, or into next week, depending on drying conditions.
 
Seeding is reported as 70 to 85% complete across the Central Region.  The Central Plains area, including Portage and Gladstone, reports 50 to 60% complete, while Pembina area reports 80 to 90% complete.  Across the entire region, essentially all cereal acres are seeded, although progress is slower in the northwest part of the region.
  
Seeding of canola ranges from 25 to 100% completed.  Some producers held back on seeding canola, due to risk of frost, or to spread out swath timing and harvest. Corn planting ranges from 50% to 100% complete; some of the crop has emerged.  Pea acres are complete.  Edible bean seeding is yet to start. Although some soybean acres are in, many producers have waited to seed due to cool soil conditions. In fields that have been seeded, seeds have swelled and germinated. However, there are no reports of soybean emergence to date.
 
Crop growth has slowed due to cooler temperatures. Cereals continue to emerge.  The most advanced spring wheat fields are in the late two to early three leaf stage.
   
Weed growth is minimal so very little pre-seed burn-off was done.  Producers hoped to do some pre-emergent treatments, but weather conditions continue to interfere.
 
Winter wheat and fall rye have come through the winter well. Most fields are reported to be in good to excellent condition, with only a fraction of acres rated as fair.  Herbicide applications will be delayed, due to frost and cold temperatures.
 
Rainfall improved hay field and pasture conditions, but forage growth is slow due to the cooler temperatures.  The most advanced alfalfa is up to 25 cm tall. Pastures overgrazed last year are very slow to recover, as are hay fields where a late cut was taken. Although pasture growth is slow, they should soon be sufficient to support grazing.   Where hay is in short supply, producers are hoping to move animals to pasture as soon as possible. Rain has replenished dugouts. 
 

 

Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulation across the Eastern Region ranged from 50 to 75 mm; higher rainfall amounts were noted in the central and southern areas of the region.  Soil moisture conditions on crop land, hay and pasture land are rated as adequate to surplus. Repeated night time temperatures below 0°C throughout the week were recorded. Cereal crops, along with a limited amount of canola, have emerged and to date appear unaffected by the frost events at the start of last week.  However, cereals and canola are being assessed for injury after the past weekend frosts.  By the end of last week, there were isolated reports of soybean emergence beginning in the early seeded fields. 

Seeding continued during the first half of the week until cool, rainy weather moved in. Seeding is estimated at 75% complete in the Eastern Region. All spring wheat acres, 90% of barley, 90% of oats, 75% of canola, all flax acres, 30% of soybeans, all sunflowers acres and 60% of corn are seeded. Seeding operations are halted until fields dry.  Standing water in fields is evident.
 
Across the region, between 5 to 10% of winter wheat acres were impacted by winterkill. Winter wheat is in the tillering growth stage. With the return of cool, wet weather, winter wheat development has not progressed much in the last seven days.
 
Across the region, the majority of hay and pasture lands are in good condition. Cattle are starting to go on pasture with supplemental feeding still happening. Dugouts are rated as full to over-capacity; availability of livestock water is sufficient.
 

 

Interlake Region

Strong blowing winds, rain, and snow was experienced throughout the Interlake Region during the weekend.  Rainfall amounts of 20 to 30 mm were recorded, along with 2 to 5 cm of snow. Field drainage is at full capacity.  Temperatures stayed cool throughout most of the week with only three days getting daytime high temperature above 15°C.  Night time temperatures dipped below the 0°C mark yet again during the week, ranging anywhere from 0 to -4.0°C.  Soil temperatures stayed very cool, averaging only 3 to 7°C.

Seeding progress is scattered throughout the Interlake Region but is estimated to be 55 to 65% complete.  In the South Interlake area, it is estimated 60 to 70% of acres are seeded.  Most cereal and oilseed crops are seeded, with soybean acres estimated to be 15 to 20% complete.  North Interlake area seeding progress estimated to be 35 to 45% complete, with the majority of seeded acres being spring cereals.  Excess soil moisture and soil temperatures are the limiting factors with producers’ seeding operations.  

Spring cereal crop staging vary throughout the region, ranging from seedling stage to the 2 to 3 leaf stage.  Canola that was seeded early and survived the early May frosts are struggling with last week’s cool, wet temperatures. However, minimal canola acres have emerged to date. Majority of grain corn and silage corn is planted, with some fields just starting to emerge prior to the rain and snow event during the weekend.  No reports of soybean emergence.
     
Continuing cold and wet weather conditions are slowing hay and pasture growth. Approximately 20 to 30% of cattle are out on summer pastures. There is ample water supply for cattle to consume on pasture.  
 
 
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