The following information is based on Grades 5 to 8 Science: Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes which itself is based on the Pan-Canadian's Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes (K - 12). Each outcome includes a brief description of the outcome, teacher background information, suggestions for instruction, a list of the general learning outcomes (GLOs) covered and overall skills and attitudes (cluster 0 outcomes) addressed in the outcome. Each outcome also contains a page number reference to the Manitoba Education and Youth document entitled "Grades 5 to 8 Science: A Foundation for Implementation" (2000). Also, where appropriate, worksheets, activities and examples have been included.
    To download these activities and/or worksheets (
A=Activity... W=Worksheet... E=Example... ), click on the corresponding colour button(s) for each learning outcome. The exercise(s) will be saved to your computer as an adobe PDF file(s). To view these files, you will require a copy of adobe acrobat reader to be installed on your computer. To download a free copy of the reader, click here.













    The four food groups of Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating
are: 1) Grain Products, 2) Vegetables and Fruits, 3) Milk Products, and 4) Meat and Alternatives.
    Each food group provides important nutrients for our bodies that we need to survive: Vegetables and Fruits - Vitamin A and C; Meat and Alternatives - Protein, Iron and B Vitamins; Milk Products - Calcium, Protein, Riboflavin and Vitamin A; Grain Products - Carbohydrate, Iron and B-Vitamins.
    Fish is easy to prepare and a healthy choice for the Meat and Alternatives category. Fish is a good source of high quality protein, and Vitamin D and A, and is generally low in fat. Manitoba's lakes and rivers are home to dozens of species of fish, including walleye (or pickerel), northern pike, catfish, and goldeye. Many Manitobans enjoy catching their own fish to eat! You can also find our fish in the supermarket.
    In general, the nutrient composition of Manitoba's freshwater fish species is about 65% to 80% water, 15% to 20% protein, and from 1% to 15% fat. The calorie level varies with the fat content of the individual species.
    Freshwater fish are a good source of high quality protein. Also, because fish muscle contains little or no connective tissue, it is easily digested and very useful in the diets of children, older people and convalescents.
    The fat content varies with where and when the fish was caught, as well as the species. Fat is in the form of easily digestible oils. There is growing interest in some oils in "fattier" fish - omega-3 fatty acids - that may be particularly beneficial to good health.
    Fish are a good source of minerals - phosphorus, calcium, iodine, copper, and fluorine. Freshwater fish are naturally low in sodium.
    Fish also contain useful amounts of B complex vitamins. The fat soluble vitamin A and D are found mostly in the flesh of fatty species. For more information on the nutritional value of Manitoba's fish,
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    Have the students work in partners. First, ask them to examine Mary's favourite food choices for lunch and dinner. Ask them to record their information on the "Mary's Favourite Foods" worksheets.
[Blackline Master] There are lots of things wrong with Mary's choices so the students can use the back of the worksheet if they run out of room on the front!
    Next, ask the students to redesign some typical meals that Mary enjoys for lunch and dinner. Tell them to be sure their choices follow the requirements in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating.
    Provide each student with a copy of the "Redesign Mary's Meals!" worksheet.
[Blackline Master] Have the students present their findings and menu designs to the class.

Evaluation:

    Teachers can have their students do a peer assessment. A blackline master is provided or teachers may wish to design their own.



    Ask the students to cut out pictures (from magazines, newspapers, etc.) of a variety of foods from the basic food groups. Students can then glue the pictures onto pieces of heavy cardboard or bristolboard. Supports are glued onto the back so that the individual pictures of foods can stand up.
    Working in partners, students can then design a well-balanced meal (including fish!) Ask the students to present their meal to the class, arranging the pictures to display the foods they have chosen on a table at the head of the classroom.
    Or, students can arrange their desks in a circle, with each pair of students arranging their "meals" on their desks. They can then present and describe their meals to the class from their position in the circle.
    Teachers may want to introduce this activity by creating and displaying their own meal (featuring fish, of course!) as an example. Pictures of a few sample foods are provided for you to "blow up" and glue onto cardboard. Teachers may also wish to provide some of these to students.



    Have the students obtain and bring to class a recipe that their parents or grandparents, neighbours or friends use to prepare Manitoba fish that they have caught or bought at the grocery store. The recipes will be used to make a recipe book.
    If they cannot find any recipes, here are a few samples they can use.
    Have the students type out their recipe on an 8 1/2" x 11" sheet of paper. They can decorate it with clip art, etc. Make sure they put their name on their recipe!
    Make copies of each student's recipe for every student in the class.
    Provide each student with a cover or have them design their own.




    Ask your students to do research to discover the nutrients that fish provide. Review some of the sources that they can use - libraries, books, newspapers, health magazines, internet
( ), government agencies, etc.
    Ask them to record the information that they discover and the sources where they found this information. Teachers may want to remind the students to provide as complete references as possible. Part of research is documenting and evaluating your sources. This means providing references that enable other people to find and evaluate these same sources.
    Teachers may want to provide your students with the information on nutrition in Manitoba fish species and ask them to research what each of these nutrients do in the human body.
    A sample worksheet is provided
[Blackline Master] or teachers may want to design your own.



    Here is a crossword for your students to try! They just might be thinking about fish for dinner by the time they are through! for a blackline master. for the answers.









































    There are many different ways to catch fish and most of these involve the use of a simple machine or combination of simple machines. Many Manitobans fish recreationally
, others are commercial fishers , and some fish for food . We are particularly challenged in Manitoba due to the nature of our climate. Many people fish in winter, under the ice, as well as in summer! The many methods of catching fish that Manitobans use and the simple machines they employ are shown below.



    Perhaps the most familiar method of fishing - the
rod and reel - uses a lever and a pulley. A fishing rod is an example of a lever.
    The fulcrum is at the end where the angler's hand is holding onto the rod. This is the pivoting point of balance. The load is the lure or hook that is cast out with the hope of catching a fish. The load is also the fish that the angler pulls out of the water (if the angler is lucky!)
    The effort, which is applied in the middle of the rod, comes from reeling in the line. However, the lever also acts to increase the speed of the load - in this case, the lure - as it is cast out over the water. It also amplifies the motion of casting, allowing the lure to go farther. The longer the fishing rod, the greater the distance that the (same) angler can cast the lure.
    The reel on the fishing rod is actually a wheel and axle. The reel has a wheel which is fixed to a central axle or shaft which moves with the wheel when it is turned. The fishing line winds or unwinds around the axle. There is a crank handle on the wheel which makes it easier to wind in the fishing line because the longer motion at the edge of the wheel is converted into a shorter, more powerful force at the axle.




    Many Manitobans like to fish in the winter. There is nothing like the peaceful silence on a clear, cold day with the brilliant winter sunshine sparkling over the white expanse of your favourite lake. (And best of all - NO MOSQUITOES!!)
    In winter, anglers do not need a long rod because they do not need to cast their line. Instead, they fish through a hole in the ice.
    In this case, a short lever will suffice. Anglers use what is called a tip-up, which is another example of a lever.
    In this case, the "rod" or lever acts more like a see-saw. The fulcrum is in the middle and the lever is weighted on one end so the other sticks up in the air. When a fish bites (the load), it pulls the one end down and the other end pops up, signaling there's something on the line!
    But wait! How do anglers make the hole in the ice? They use an
ice auger.
    An auger is an example of a screw which is another version of an inclined plane. In this case, the inclined plane is cut in a spiral shape around a shaft. The inclined plane increases the distance that a load moves, reducing the effort needed to move the load. A screw magnifies the applied effort so that the screw moves forward with increasing force.




    Manitobans do not fish only for recreation. Some are commercial fishers who catch the fish that you buy in the grocery store. They fish for a living - to support their families.
    On Lake Winnipeg, some commercial fishers use large boats (called whitefish boats) to catch many different species of fish (including whitefish!)
    The fishers fish with
gill nets. Gill nets are like underwater fences. Fish are caught when they try to swim through the net web (or mesh), which entangles their gills. The nets vary in length, depth and size of mesh. The mesh size determines the size of fish that can be caught. Each net is about 80 metres long, with plastic floats attached to the top line of the net and lead weights along the bottom line.
    When the net is loaded with fish and very heavy, it is difficult to pull it out of the water. These boats are large - as big as 50 feet long. Therefore, the boats have a large gas-powered net lifter at the front (the "bow") to pull the nets out of the water. A net lifter is similar to a reel on a fishing rod (only much larger!)




    Commercial fishers also fish in winter under the ice! How do they do it? Well, just like an angler, they use an auger to drill holes through the ice. Except their auger is much bigger!
    Then they set their nets under the ice using a
jigger. A jigger is a fairly simple gadget but one of the most important tools of the winter commercial fisher. It has remained relatively unchanged since its first appearance in the early 1900s.
    The jigger is a dart-shaped plank about 6 feet (1.8 metres) long. It is equipped with a steel-tipped wooden arm running through a slot and hinged to a steel rod. A long rope is attached to the rod.
    To set a net, the jigger is placed through a hole cut in the ice. The jigger is positioned so that the steel-tipped arm sticks up against the underside of the ice at the water's surface. When all is ready, the operator pulls on the rope (applies force). The rope is attached to the metal rod (the lever) on the jigger. When pulled, the rope applies force to the wooden arm, pushing it upwards and causing the steel tip to dig into the ice and propel the jigger forward a meter or so.
    When the rope is released, the steel tip drops away and returns to its former position. The operator tugs the rope again and the process repeats until the jigger has moved a distance from the first hole equal to the length of the net. Sometimes the jigger can be seen through the ice, especially if it has been painted a bright colour, but usually the tapping noise made by the steel tip under the ice is used to locate it. Then a second hole is drilled just in front and the jigger with its trailing rope is retrieved.
    The jigger rope entering the first hole is then tied to the gill net. As the rope is pulled from the second hole, the net enters the water through the first hole and is pulled into position, straddling the two holes.










































































    Present your students with this design process problem. They are shipwrecked on an island and have to design a simple device to catch fish. Make each student a copy of the problem sheet.

    Now, recall the stages of the design process:

1) Recognizing a Practical Problem, 2) Researching/Accessing Information, 3) Developing Evaluation Criteria, 4) Brainstorming Solutions, 5) Creating a Plan, 6) Constructing an Object, 7) Testing with Respect to Evaluation Criteria, 8) Making Improvements, 9) Proposing a Solution and 10) Communicating Results.

    Using these stages, outline to the students what is expected from them and the assessment technique(s) which will be used. [For a more detailed explanation of the stages of the design process, please refer to the Grade 5-8 Foundation for Implementation Document.]
    Provide each student with a copy of the Student Design Process Recording Sheet. (This blackline master is provided for teachers' convenience, or you may wish to use your own format.)

Materials:

    You may want to provide your students with graph paper on which to develop their blueprints.
    As indicated in the original problem, the focus of the material selection should be on the use of recycled materials. Students should make a list of all materials for approval by the teacher before construction and assembly begins.

Safety Considerations:

    It is very important that safety considerations be addressed in the introduction of this design process activity. In all stages of the design process, students should be aware of the potential safety issues to themselves and others. Under no circumstances should hooks be used. A rubber weight or washers fastened together will simulate this effectively and provide the necessary counter balance in the accuracy assessment. The teacher should be aware of the correct use of tools and appropriate classroom behaviors during the construction and testing phase.

Assessment:

Below are four examples of different ways this design process outcome could be assessed.

A) Teacher Design Process Checklist - A Teacher Design Process Checklist is provided for you to track the progress of each student, or group of students, sign off on each stage, and intervene if they encounter any difficulties.

B) Student Design Process Self Assessment - Teachers can provide each student with a copy of the Student Design Process Self-Assessment.
[Blackline Master]
C) Peer Assessment - Teachers can provide each student with a copy of the Student Design Process Peer Assessment . Peer assessment could focus on the work conducted by group or team members or could be based on the assessment completed by all class members based on the presentation.

D) Assessment Rubric of Design Process - Teachers may wish to only focus on one aspect of the design process such as the planning or presentation. The assessment of the design process should be made clear to the students prior to the beginning of this activity and then presented to the students for reflection.