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Wild Boar-at-Large in Manitoba

In the early 1980's, wild boar were introduced to Manitoba as an agriculture diversification initiative. A number of animals have since escaped from holding facilities on some of the farms. Intelligent, hardy and adaptable, they have been able to quickly acclimate to harsh conditions, a variety of habitats and the presence of man. Escaped wild boar have been reported throughout southern Manitoba. Contact the Manitoba Conservation and Stewardship district office for current information on wild boar in that area.

Escaped wild boar not only impact on private property, but also seriously damage native floral and faunal wildlife species through their feeding habits, aggressive behaviour and phenomenal reproductive capability. If you have seen an escaped wild boar, contact the nearest Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship office.

Biology
  • Adult males can weigh up to 200 kg and sows up to 170 kg.
  • Maximum length of 1.8 meters and maximum height of 1 meter at the shoulder.
  • Dark brown or black woolly undercoat with outer coat of course, stiff bristles, especially on the back.
  • The young are reddish brown with black longitudinal stripes that gradually disappear.
  • Erect ears, straight tail and four continually growing canine teeth or "tusks" (two in each jaw).
  • Maximum life span is approximately 25 years.
  • Can produce one to two litters a year, each containing 4 -12 piglets.
Habitat
  • Prefer dense brush associated with river beds or swampy areas for cover, shelter and farrowing.
  • Commonly use conifer and hardwood forests for feeding and travel corridors.
  • In remote areas or where human activity is minimal, they may be found in fields or grass areas.
  • Due to inability to thermoregulate body temperature, wild boar are attracted to ponds, streams and dugouts.
Habits
  • Most active during the evening and early morning.
  • Can cover great distances in search of food. Winter home range varies from 0.9-18.5 km². Annual ranges up to 50 km² are not uncommon.
  • Omnivorous, but favour vegetative matter such as roots, tubers, plant stems and acorns.
  • Acute sense of smell that aids in their search for food.

Hunting Wild Boar

There have been numerous instances of people, pets and livestock being chased, harassed and even bitten by escaped wild boar, as well as, reports of property damage. In Manitoba, wild boar are private property like traditional livestock breeds and, under The Animal Liability Act can only be destroyed if injuring or attacking livestock. Since they are not native to Manitoba and not the property of the Crown, listing wild boar under The Wildlife Act eliminated the use of hunting seasons to control those found running at large. Due to concern for public safety and the protection of wildlife, wildlife habitat and public or private property, the Exotic Animals Regulation was recently amended to allow Manitoba residents to kill escaped wild boar.

Declared Wild Boar Control Areas

The province was declared a Wild Boar Control Area in September 2001. The current province-wide declaration [PDF] permits a resident of Manitoba to hunt and kill escaped wild boar that are running at-large anywhere in Manitoba (excluding Riding Mountain and Wapusk National Parks), at any time of the year, as follows:

  • On Crown land, except for a wildlife refuge or game bird refuge;
  • In a provincial park, except in areas where all hunting is prohibited;
  • In an ecological reserve with written authorization from the minister;
  • On private land with the permission of the landowner or lawful occupant;
  • In compliance with all big game hunting requirements, excluding those noted in the Declaration; and
  • Within 7 days of killing a wild boar, the hunter must report the incident to Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship or Manitoba Agriculture Food and Rural Development.

A person hunting wild boar:

  • does not require a licence, tag or permit
  • can hunt 7 days a week
  • is not limited to a bag or possession limit
  • does not require a plug in their shotgun, and
  • does not require hunter orange dress unless a big game season is open in the area where the hunting is taking place, and hunters are required to wear hunter orange in that big game season; and

A person hunting wild boar is restricted to the following equipment types:

  • a centrefire rifle
  • a 16 or 20 gauge shotgun firing slugs
  • a 10 or 12 gauge shotgun firing slugs or OO Buck (or larger)
  • a .45 caliber (or larger) muzzleloader firing a single projectile
  • a long bow or recurve requiring not less than 40 pounds draw weight at 28 inches draw. Broadhead must be at least 7/8 inch in diameter, or
  • a compound bow set at not less than 40 pounds peak draw weight at 28 inches draw. Broadhead must be at least 7/8 inch in diameter, or
  • a crossbow requiring not less than 150 pounds draw weight and a bolt having a broadhead with a minimum 7/8 inch diameter
General Hunting Caution

Hunters are encouraged to exercise discretion when hunting in the vicinity of a wild boar farm to ensure that the wild boar being hunted are not recently escaped animals that the owner is trying to recapture.