Summary Of Research Publications In Field Crop Entomology - 2007

Summarized by: John Gavloski, Entomologist, Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives, Carman, Manitoba.

The following provides a summary of peer-reviewed research publications from 2007 relating to field crop entomology. Publications are grouped by commodity, with more general research categorized at the end of this document. Highlights from the research are noted and occasionally I have provided some of my own comments regarding applications of the research. Although the list may not be complete, articles were selected based on their relevance to farmers and agronomists in Manitoba.

Canola

Flea Beetles

Laboratory studies of the toxicity of spinosad and deltamethrin to Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). R.H. Elliott, M.C. Benjamin, C. Gillott. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139: pp. 534-544.

Highlights:

  • Spinosad was more toxic by ingestion than topical contact.
  • Low concentrations of spinosad (40 ppm) strongly inhibited feeding activity within 24 h after exposure.
  • An ionic surfactant, polyethylenimine, increased the toxicity of 40 ppm spinosad.
  • Spinosad has potential for use as an insecticide against crucifer flea beetles on canola.

Comparisons of Ecorational and Chemical Insecticides Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola F. B. Antwi; D. L. Olson; D. R. Carey. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp.1201-1209. August 2007.

Highlights:

  • Studies in North Dakota compared the insecticides SpinTor (spinosad), BotaniGard (Beauveria bassiana), Neemix (azadirachtin), and Surround (kaolin, a clay) with the conventional insecticides Capture (bifenthrin) and Helix XTra (thiamethoxam) for control of crucifer flea beetles.
  • Spinosad seems to be a suitable ecorational insecticide in canola for crucifer flea beetle management.

Exposure to Clothianidin Seed-Treated Canola Has No Long-Term Impact on Honey Bees. G. Christopher Cutler; Cynthia D. Scott-Dupree. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 3: pp.765-772. June 2007.

Highlights

  • Although clothianidin (Prosper) residues were detected in honey, nectar, and pollen from colonies in clothianidin-treated fields, maximum concentrations detected were 8- to 22-fold below the reported no observable adverse effects concentration.
  • Clothianidin residues were not detected in any beeswax sample.

Diamondback Moth

Resistance of Some Cultivated Brassicaceae to Infestations by Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 1: pp.215-224. February 2007.

Sex pheromone production and response in Korean populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Chang Yeol Yang, Suk Lee, Kyung San Choi, Heung Yong Jeon, Kyung Saeng Boo. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 293–298. September 2007.

Highlights

  • A previously reported component of the sex attractant of Canadian diamondback moths was not detected in gland extracts of Korean diamondback moths.
  • There is geographical variation in the pheromone systems of diamondback moth.

Cabbage Seedpod Weevil

Managing cabbage seedpod weevil in canola using a trap crop—A commercial field scale study in western Canada. H.A. Cárcamo, R. Dunn, L.M. Dosdall and O. Olfert. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 8: pp 1325-1334. August 2007.

Highlights

  • Field perimeters of Brassica rapa planted at the same time as the main crop of B. napus flowered about 1 week earlier and effectively concentrated weevil populations that were sprayed with insecticide.

Resistance to cabbage seedpod weevil among selected Brassicaceae germplasm. H. Cárcamo, O. Olfert, L. Dosdall, C. Herle, B. Beres, J. Soroka. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139: pp. 658-669.

Highlights

  • Relative susceptibilities to cabbage seedpod weevil were as follows: Brassica rapa and B. napus > B. juncea = B. carinata > S. alba.
  • All lines of yellow mustard (S. alba) were virtually immune to attack by cabbage seedpod weevil.

Others

Neighbouring monocultures enhance the effect of intercropping on the turnip root fly (Delia floralis). Maria Björkman, Peter A. Hambäck, Birgitta Rämert. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 124, No. 3: pp. 319–326. September 2007.

Slug control in Australian canola: monitoring, molluscicidal baits and economic thresholds Michael A Nash *, Linda J Thomson, Ary A Hoffmann. Pest Management Science. Volume 63, Issue 9: pp. 851 – 859. September 2007.

Sunflowers

Impact of Combining Planting Date and Chemical Control to Reduce Larval Densities of Stem-Infesting Pests of Sunflower in the Central Plains. Laurence D. Charlet; Robert M. Aiken; Ron F. Meyer; Assefa Gebre-amlak Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp.1248-1257. August 2007.

Small Grain Cereals

Wheat Midge

Survival of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on wheat (Poaceae) with antibiosis resistance: implication for the evolution of virulence. M.A.H. Smith, I.L. Wise, R.J. Lamb. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139, No. 1: pp. 133-140. Jan/Feb. 2007.

Highlights

  • A small number of wheat midge larvae survived and matured in spring wheat plots carrying the Sm1 gene for antibiosis resistance against the wheat midge. Survival was very low compared to larvae developing on susceptible wheat.
  • The frequency of the allele allowing adaptation to the Sm1 gene was estimated to be between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.6 x 10-2.

Comments

Although the allele enabling the wheat midge to overcome the resistance bred into the wheat is rare, this would likely allow the wheat midge to overcome the resistance if proper resistance management practices are not followed.

Development of a pheromone trap monitoring system for orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, in the UK. Toby JA Bruce, Antony M Hooper, Lynda Ireland, Owen T Jones, Janet L Martin, Lesley E Smart, Jon Oakley, Lester J Wadhams. Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 1: pp. 49 – 56. January 2007.

Highlights

  • Pheromone traps gave a reliable indication of peak midge emergence, onset of flight, and abundance of midge throughout the season.

Oviposition behavior of orange wheat blossom midge on low- vs. high-ranked grass seed heads. G. A. S. M. Ganehiarachchi, M. O. Harris. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 123, No. 3: pp. 287–297. June 2007.

Aphids

Trophic interactions between three species of cereal aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spring wheat (Poaceae): implications for pest management. S.M. Migui, R.J. Lamb. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139: pp. 850-863.

Highlights

  • The interactions between 3 species of cereal aphids (bird cherry-oat aphid, English grain aphid, and greenbug) and 3 types of Canadian spring wheat were studied.
  • Canadian Western Red Spring Wheat was more tolerant to aphids than Canadian Prairie Spring and Canadian Western Amber Durum wheat, but not tolerant enough to avoid economic damage at higher aphid densities.
  • In both years of the study, greenbugs caused the highest yield loss, and bird cherry-oat aphid the lowest.

Wheat Stem Sawfly And Hessian Fly

Effect of Wheat Stem Sawfly Damage on Yield and Quality of Selected Canadian Spring Wheat. B. L. Beres; H. A. Cárcamo; J. R. Byers. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 1: pp.79-87. February 2007.

Feeding by Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] larvae does not induce plant indirect defences. John F. Tooker, Consuelo M. De Moraes. Ecological Entomology. Vol. 32, No. 2: pp. 153–161. April 2007.

Highlights

  • Some types of insect herbivores result in plants releasing volatile chemicals that attract natural enemies
  • Hessian flies did not result in a detectable volatile response from wheat plants, whereas a generalist caterpillar did trigger a release of volatile chemicals
  • These results suggest that Hessian fly larvae exert a degree of control over the defensive response of their host plants.

Other Insects On Wheat

Morbidity and recovery of the Pacific Coast wireworm, Limonius canus, following contact with tefluthrin-treated wheat seeds. W. G. van Herk, R. S. Vernon. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 125, No. 2: pp. 111–117. November 2007.

Highlights

  • Larvae of the Pacific Coast wireworm, Limonius canus, became moribund within 20 minutes of exposure to wheat seeds treated with tefluthrin (a pyrethroid insecticide), but were able to fully recover.

Effects of Tillage on the Activity Density and Biological Diversity of Carabid Beetles in Spring and Winter Crops. Timothy D. Hatten; Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez; James R. Labonte; Stephen O. Guy; Sanford D. Eigenbrode. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 2: pp. 356-368. April 2007.

Photosynthetic Responses of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., to Defoliation Patterns on Individual Leaves. Tulio B. Macedo; Robert K. D. Peterson; Courtney L. Dausz; David K. Weaver. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 3: pp.602-608. June 2007.

Corn

European Corn Borer

Monitoring of European Corn Borer with Pheromone-Baited Traps: Review of Trapping System Basics and Remaining Problems. Pélozuelo Laurent; Brigitte Frérot. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1797-1807. December 2007.

Highlights

  • Water pan traps and mesh cone traps are the most efficient traps for capture of the European corn borer male moths. However, water pan traps are less convenient as they require regular refilling and many untargeted insects can get trapped.
  • Pheromone-baited traps should only be used to predict the onset of moth flight, not to predict damage.

DiPel-Selected Ostrinia nubilalis Larvae Are Not Resistant to Transgenic Corn Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab. Huarong Li; Lawrent L. Buschman; Fangneng Huang; Kun Yan Zhu; Bryony Bonning; Brenda Oppert. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1862-1870. December 2007.

Infestation of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, in Midwestern USA fields with herbaceous borders. W. Terrell Stamps, Thomas V. Dailey and Ned M. Gruenhagen. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Vol. 121, Issue 4: pp. 430-434. August 2007.

Effect of Age and Mating Status on Adult European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Dispersal from Small-Grain Aggregation Plots. Brendon J. Reardon; Thomas W. Sappington. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp.1116-1123. August 2007.

Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) Resistance of Main Races of Maize from North America. Pedro Revilla; Ana Butrón; Bernardo Ordás; Pilar Soengas; Amando Ordás; Rosa Ana Malvar. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 1: pp. 209-214. February 2007.

Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations. R.A. Malvar, A. Butrón, A. Alvarez, G. Padilla, M.E. Cartea, P. Revilla and A. Ordás. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 5: pp. 775-781.

Bt Corn

Effectiveness of three Bt corn events against feeding damage by the true armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta Haworth). A W Schaafsma, M L Holmes, J Whistlecraft, S A Dudley. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Vol. 87: pp. 599-603. July 2007.

Highlights

  • Bt hybrids suffered less damage by true armyworm in all 3 years of the study than the non-transgenic isolines.
  • Bt corn, especially the Mon810 event, may be used as an effective method of preventing true armyworm damage in corn.

Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Transgenic Corn on Corn Earworm and Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Densities. Charles F. Chilcutt; Gary N. Odvody; J. Carlos Correa; Jeff Remmers. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 2: pp. 327-334. April 2007.

Highlights

  • First and second instars of corn earworm were higher on 2 types of Bt corn (Mon810 and Bt11) than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, and densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants.

Response of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Field Populations to Four Years of Lepidoptera-Specific Bt Corn Production. K. D. Floate; H. A. Cárcamo; R. E. Blackshaw; B. Postman; S. Bourassa. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 5: pp. 1269-1274. October 2007.

Highlights

  • Cultivation of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn in southern Alberta does not appreciably affect ground beetle populations.

Soybeans

Soybean Aphid

Economic Threshold for Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). D. W. Ragsdale; B. P. McCornack; R. C. Venette; B. D. Potter; I. V. MacRae; E. W. Hodgson; M. E. O'Neal; K. D. Johnson; R. J. O'Neil; C. D. DiFonzo; T. E. Hunt; P. A. Glogoza; E. M. Cullen. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp. 1258-1267. August 2007.

Highlights

  • A common experimental protocol was used by participants in six states, who provided data from 19 yield-loss experiments conducted over a 3 year period.
  • The mean economic injury level (EIL) was 674 aphids per plant.
  • The mean economic threshold (averaged over a range of control costs, market values, and yield potentials) was as low as 273 aphids per plant if controls can not be applied for 7 days (this allows for potential increases in aphid populations), and as high as 592 if insecticide can be applied within 1 day of last scouting.
  • Population doubling time for field populations of soybean aphid averaged 6.8 days.

Toward management guidelines for the soybean aphid in Quebec. I. Feeding damage in relationship to seasonality of infestation and incidence of native predators. M. Rhainds, M. Roy, G. Daigle, J. Brodeur. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139: pp. 728-741.

Highlights

  • In caged subplots where predators were excluded, aphids attained a high density following experimental infestation of soybeans, resulting in severe reductions of yield, particularly when plants were infested early in the season.
  • A guild of generalist predators consisting predominantly of lady beetles colonized plants in uncaged subplots, resulting in a low rate of population growth following infestation of soybeans with aphids and a relatively weak impact on soybean yield.

Soil Potassium Deficiency Affects Soybean Phloem Nitrogen and Soybean Aphid Populations. Abigail J. Walter; Christina D. DiFonzo. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 1: pp.26-33. February 2007.

Highlights

  • Soybean plants with potassium deficiency symptoms had a higher density of soybean aphids than plants without deficiency symptoms. This effect was caused by earlier aphid reproduction and higher number of aphid nymphs per mother on plants growing in low-potassium soil.
  • The percentage of asparagine, an important amino acid for aphid nutrition, increased with decreasing soil potassium.

Resistance to Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Various Soybean Lines Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions. Louis S. Hesler; Kenton E. Dashiell. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp.1464-1469. August 2007. Location of Research: Brookings, South Dakota

Highlights

  • The soybean lines “Cobb,” “Tie-feng 8,” and “Jackson” were resistant to population growth of soybean aphid compared with “Cook” and “91B91,” a susceptible control.
  • Jackson is a strong source of resistance to soybean aphids, and Tie-feng 8, Braxton, and especially Cobb are potential useful sources of resistance.

Feeding Behavior by the Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Resistant and Susceptible Soybean Genotypes. John Diaz-Montano; John C. Reese; Joe Louis; Leslie R. Campbell; William T. Schapaugh. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 3: pp. 984-989. June 2007.

Antagonistic Effects of Soybean Viruses on Soybean Aphid Performance. Jack R. Donaldson; Claudio Gratton. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 4: pp. 918-925. August 2007. Location of Research: University of Wisconsin.

Highlights

  • A series of experiments were conducted that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance.
  • In the field experiments, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants.
  • Increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth.

Development of Soybean Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Its Primary Overwintering Host, Rhamnus cathartica. C. A. Bahlai; J. A. Welsman; A. W. Schaafsma; M. K. Sears. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 5: pp. 998-1006. October 2007.

Highlights

  • There was a high level of synchrony between egg hatch of soybean aphids and bud swelling of its overwintering host, common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica.
  • Models based on ambient air temperature were poor predictors of egg hatch, but models adjusted for solar radiation predicted these events just 1 – 4 days before they were observed.

Chlorophyll Loss Caused by Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Feeding on Soybean John Diaz-montano; John C. Reese; William T. Schapaugh; Leslie R. Campbell. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 5: pp.1657-1662. October 2007.

Hymenopteran Parasitoids and Dipteran Predators Found Using Soybean Aphid After Its Midwestern United States Invasion. Matthew E. Kaiser; Takuji Noma; Michael J. Brewer; Keith S. Pike; J. R. Vockeroth; Stephen D. Gaimari. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Vol. 100, No. 2: pp. 196-205. March 2007.

Distribution and Abundance of Carabidae (Coleoptera) Associated with Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Central New York. Ann E. Hajek; Joshua J. Hannam; Charlotte Nielsen; Adam J. Bell; James K. Liebherr. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 876-886. November 2007.

Population Dynamics of Soybean Aphid and Biotic Mortality at the Edge of Its Range. Tierney R. Brosius; L. G. Higley; T. E. Hunt. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 4: pp. 1268-1275. August 2007.

Effects of a juvenile hormone analogue, pyriproxyfen, on the apterous form of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines). M. L. Richardson, D. M. Lagos. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 5: pp. 297–302. June 2007.

Alfalfa Living Mulch Advances Biological Control of Soybean Aphid. Nicholas P. Schmidt; Matthew E. O'Neal; Jeremy W. Singer. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 2: pp. 416-424. April 2007.

Decline of Soybean Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Egg Populations from Autumn to Spring on the Primary Host, Rhamnus cathartica. J. A. Welsman; C. A. Bahlai; M. K. Sears; A. W. Schaafsma. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 3: pp. 541-548. June 2007.

Others

Development of Vegetation Indices for Identifying Insect Infestations in Soybean. Board, J.E., _et al_. Agron. Jrnl. Vol. 99, No. 3: pp. 650-656. May-June 2007.

Alfalfa

Physiological Response of Glandular-Haired Alfalfa to Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Injury. W. O. Lamp; L. C. Alexander; M. Nguyen. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 1: pp. 195-203. February 2007.

Potatoes

Colorado Potato Beetle

Field efficacy of novaluron for control of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on potato. G.C. Cutler, C.D. Scott-Dupree, J.H. Tolman and C.R. Harris. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 5: pp. 760-767. May 2007.

Highlights:

  • Foliar applications of novaluron greatly suppressed second to fourth instar larvae of Colorado potato beetles, but did not significantly reduce numbers of adults, egg masses, or first instar larvae.
  • Novaluron was much more effective when applied 2 days after second instars were first observed on plants, than when applied 2 days after observance of egg masses.
  • Yields were 3.8 to 5.2 times greater than those harvested from control plots

Comments: Novaluron is marketed in Canada under the trade name Rimon. It is an insect growth regulator that disrupts cuticle formation as insects molt from one stage to the next.

Evaluation of a novel host plant volatile-based attracticide for management of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). J.W. Martel, A.R. Alford and J.C. Dickens. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 6: pp. 822-827. June 2007.

Resistance and cross-resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Andrei Alyokhin, Galen Dively, Megan Patterson, Christopher Castaldo, David Rogers, Matthew Mahoney, John Wollam. Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 1: pp. 32 – 41. January 2007.

Persistence and Inheritance of Costs of Resistance to Imidacloprid in Colorado Potato Beetle. Mitchell B. Baker; Andrei Alyokhin; Adam H. Porter; David N. Ferro; Shana R. Dastur; Nehal Galal. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1871-1879. December 2007.

Other Insects

Topical, residual and ovicidal contact toxicity of three reduced-risk insecticides against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on potato. Gilles Boiteau, Christine Noronha. Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 12: pp. 1230 – 1238. December 2007.

Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae. A. E. Alvarez, E. Garzo, M. Verbeek, B. Vosman, M. Dicke, W. F. Tjallingii. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 125, No. 2: pp. 135–144. November 2007.

Stored Grains

Heat treatment for disinfestation of empty grain storage bins. Dennis R. Tilley, Mark E. Casada and Frank H. Arthur. Journal of Stored Products Research.

Vol. 43, Issue 3: pp. 221-228.

Highlights:

A high-output propane heater (29 kW) produced 100% mortality of the red flour beetle, rice weevil, and the lesser grain borer in 2 h at all test locations. An electric duct-heater system (18 kW) also produced 100% mortality at all test locations after 40 h when aided by a complicated interior heat-distribution system. The other three systems tested produced less than 100% mortality.

Wheat disinfestation using microwave energy. R. Vadivambal, D.S. Jayas and N.D.G. White. Journal of Stored Products Research. Vol. 43, Issue 4: pp. 508-514.

Highlights:

  • Wheat samples infested with rusty grain beetles, red flour beetles, and granary weevils were exposed to microwave energy at four different power levels (250, 300, 400, and 500 W) for two exposure times of 28 and 56 s.
  • Complete kill of adults of all three species and of post-embryonic stages of the red flour beetle was achieved at 500 W with an exposure time of 28 s.
  • Germination of wheat kernels was lower after treatment with microwave energy.
  • Milling and baking tests were done for the samples at which 100% mortality was obtained. There was no significant difference in the quality of grain protein, flour protein, flour yield, flour ash, and loaf volume of wheat treated with microwave energy.

Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations, applied alone or in combination, against three stored-product beetle species on wheat and maize. C.G. Athanassiou, N.G. Kavallieratos and C.M. Meletsis. Journal of Stored Products Research. Vol. 43, Issue 4: pp. 330-334.

Detection of age and insect damage incurred by wheat, with an electronic nose. Hongmei Zhang and Jun Wang. Journal of Stored Products Research. Vol. 43, Issue 4: pp. 489-495.

Highlights:

  • Wheats of five storage ages and with 15 degrees of insect damage were evaluated and classified using an electronic nose (E-nose) comprising 10 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors.The E-nose generated a typical chemical fingerprint of the volatile compounds present in the samples.
  • The E-nose could discriminate successfully among wheats of different age and with different degrees of insect damage.

Evaluation of spinosad as a grain protectant on three Kansas farms. Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Michael D. Toews, Klein E. Ileleji, Dirk E. Maier, Gary D. Thompson and Terry J. Pitts. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 7: pp. 1021-1030. July 2007.

Highlights:

  • Spinosad was effective in killing adults of rusty grain beetle and lesser grain borer, but not red flour beetle.

Biology and management of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored products. S. Mohandass, F.H. Arthur, K.Y. Zhu and J.E. Throne. Journal of stored products research. Vol. 43, Issue 3: pp. 302-311.

The effects of temperature on flight initiation in a range of moths, beetles and parasitoids associated with stored products. P.D. Cox, M.E. Wakefield and T.A. Jacob. Journal of stored products research. Vol. 43, Issue 2: pp. 111-117.

Altered susceptibility of granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations to insecticides after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Petar Kljajić and Ilija Perić. Journal of stored products research. Vol. 43, Issue 2: pp. 134-141.

Detection of granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) eggs and internal stages in wheat grain using soft X-ray and image analysis. Józef Fornal, Tomasz Jeliński, Jadwiga Sadowska, Stanisław Grundas, Jan Nawrot, Anna Niewiada, Jerzy R. Warchalewski and Wioletta Błaszczak. Journal of stored products research. Vol. 43, Issue 2: pp. 142-148.

Enhanced fumigant toxicity of allyl acetate to stored-product beetles in the presence of carbon dioxide. B.C. Leelaja, Y. Rajashekar, P. Vanitha Reddy, Khamrunissa Begum and S. Rajendran. Journal of stored products research. Vol. 43, issue 1: pp. 45-48.

Fumigant toxicity of Eucalyptus intertexta, Eucalyptus sargentii and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against stored-product beetles. M. Negahban, S. Moharramipour. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 4: pp. 256–261. May 2007.

Comparison of Detection Methods for Acarus siro (Acari: Acaridida: Acarididae) Contamination in Grain. Iva Krizkova-Kudlikova; Vaclav Stejskal; Jan Hubert. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1928-1937. December 2007.

Effect of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Nutritional Environment, Sex, and Mating Status on Response to Commercial Pheromone Traps. T. Y. Fedina; S. M. Lewis. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1924-1927. December 2007.

New Insecticides

Flonicamid, a novel insecticide with a rapid inhibitory effect on aphid feeding. Masayuki Morita , Tsuyoshi Ueda, Tetsuo Yoneda, Tohru Koyanagi, Takahiro Haga. Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 10: pp. 969 – 973. October 2007.

Highlights:

  • Flonicamid is a novel systemic insecticide with selective activity against insects such as aphids, whiteflies and thrips. It inhibits the feeding behaviour of aphids within 30 minutes of treatment.
  • The main insecticidal mechanism of flonicamid is starvation based on the inhibition of stylet penetration to plant tissue.

Pesticide Residues And Exposure

Effects of an azinphos-methyl runoff event on macroinvertebrates in the Wilmot River, Prince Edward Island, Canada. L.A. Purcell, D.J. Giberson. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 139: pp. 523-533.

Highlights:

One family of Diptera (flies), one family of Plecoptera (stoneflies), and three families of Trichoptera (caddisflies) disappeared entirely from the study reach after the runoff event, and several other families were severely depleted in numbers.

Mortality of five wireworm species (Coleoptera: Elateridae), following topical application of clothianidin and chlorpyrifos. W.G. van Herk, R.S. Vernon, M. Clodius, C. Harding and J.H. Tolman. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. Vol. 104. pp. 55-64. December 2007.

Highlights:

  • Considerable differences in susceptibility to both chlorpyrifos and clothianidin were observed among species of wireworm.

Notes:

A survey of species of wireworms is being conducted across Canada, which will determine the dominant species in each region. Anyone finding or knowing of areas where wireworms are abundant is encouraged to contact their local agriculture office so samples can be provided for the survey.

Ecologically Sustainable Chemical Recommendations for Agricultural Pest Control? Linda J. Thomson; Ary A. Hoffmann. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 6: pp. 1741-1750. December 2007.

Do farmers understand the information displayed on pesticide product labels? A key question to reduce pesticides exposure and risk of poisoning in the Brazilian Amazon. Andrea Viviana Waichman, Evaldice Eve and Nailson Celso da Silva Nina. Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 4: pp. 576-583. April 2007.

Highlights:

  • Brazil is the world’s fourth largest consumer of pesticides.
  • Farmers, in the main, do not read the labels, reporting that the fonts are too small, and that the instructions are too long and in overly technical Portuguese. They also understood few of the pictograms
  • In many cases, the inability to understand the label information led to the adoption of practices which increased exposure, risk to human health and environmental contamination.

Incidents of bee poisoning with pesticides in the United Kingdom, 1994-2003. Elizabeth A Barnett , Andrew J Charlton, Mark R Fletcher.

Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 11: pp. 1051 – 1057. November 2007.

Highlights:

  • The overall trend is that suspected poisoning incidents, reported by beekeepers and the general public, have declined from 56 incidents per year to 23 incidents per year. The number of these incidents that have been attributed to pesticide poisoning has also declined, from 25 incidents to 5 incidents per year.

Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective. Gijs A Kleter , Raj Bhula , Kevin Bodnaruk , Elizabeth Carazo , Allan S Felsot , Caroline A Harris, Arata Katayama , Harry A Kuiper , Kenneth D Racke , Baruch Rubin , Yehuda Shevah , Gerald R Stephenson , Keiji Tanaka , John Unsworth , R Donald Wauchope , Sue-Sun Wong. Pest Management Science. Vol. 63, Issue 11: pp. 1107 – 1115. November 2007.

Highlights:

  • Most results indicate a decrease in the amount of active ingredients applied to transgenic crops compared to conventional crops.

Assessing the intensity of pesticide use in agriculture. Claudia Sattler, Harald Kächele and Gernot Verch. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Env. Vol. 119, Issues 3-4: pp. 217-422. March 2007.

Beneficial Insects

Lady Beetles

The use of honeydew in foraging for aphids by larvae of the ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Toru Ide, Nobuhiko Suzuki, Noboru Katayama. Ecological Entomology. Vol. 32, No. 5: pp. 455–460. October 2007.

Highlights:

  • Larvae of the seven spotted lady beetle appear to use honeydew excreted from aphids to help locate aphids.

Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Buildings: Relationship Between Body Height and Crevice Size Allowing Entry. Christine A. Nalepa. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 5: pp.1633-1636. October 2007.

Predation by Adult and Larval Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Initial Contact with Lady Beetle Eggs. Ted E. Cottrell. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 2: pp.390-401. April 2007.

Sibling cannibalism in aphidophagous ladybirds: its impact on sex-dependent development and body weight. Omkar, A. Pervez, A. K. Gupta. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 2: pp. 81–84. March 2007.

Rhythmicity in life events of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Omkar, K. Singh. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 2: pp. 85–89. March 2007.

Ground Beetles

Impact of agricultural management on carabid communities and weed seed predation. Fabián D. Menalled, Richard G. Smith, Joseph T. Dauer and Tyler B. Fox. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Vol. 118, Issues 1-4: pp. 49-54. January 2007.

Effects of Tillage on the Activity Density and Biological Diversity of Carabid Beetles in Spring and Winter Crops. Timothy D. Hatten; Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez; James R. Labonte; Stephen O. Guy; Sanford D. Eigenbrode. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 2: pp.356-368. April 2007.

Direct Effects of Tillage on the Activity Density of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Weed Seed Predators. A. F. Shearin; S. C. Reberg-Horton; E. R. Gallandt. Environmental Entomology. Vol. 36, No. 5: pp.1140-1146. October 2007.

Others

Olfactory response of a predatory mirid to herbivore induced plant volatiles: multiple herbivory vs. single herbivory. H. R. S. Moayeri, A. Ashouri, L. Poll, A. Enkegaard. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 5: pp. 326–332. June 2007.

Grasshoppers - General

Grasshopper egg mortality mediated by oviposition tactics and fire intensity. David H. Branson, Lance T. Vermeire. Ecological Entomology. Vol. 32: pp. 128–134. Feb 2007.

Highlights:

  • The effects of simulated autumn grassland fires of varying intensities on below-ground egg mortality were examined for grasshopper species laying shallow egg pods (the whitewiskered grasshopper), and deeper egg pods (the migratory grasshopper).
  • Fires occurring in areas with at least 3100 kg ha-1 standing crop biomass would be expected to significantly reduce populations of the whitewiskered grasshopper, but not the migratory grasshopper.

Note: The migratory grasshopper is a potential pest species in Manitoba. Although the whitewhiskered grasshopper does occur in Manitoba, it is not a potential pest species.

Competition among the adults of three grasshoppers (Orthop., Acrididae) on an alpine grassland. C.Z. Liu, S.R. Zhou, L. Yan, F.N. Huang. Journal of Applied Entomology. Vol. 131, No. 3: pp. 153–159. April 2007.

Aphids - General

Aphid dispersal flight disseminates fungal pathogens and parasitoids as natural control agents of aphids. Ming-Guang Feng, Chun Chen, Su-Wei Shang Sheng-Hua Ying, Zhi-Cheng Shen, Xue-Xin Chen. Ecological Entomology. Vol. 32, No. 1: pp. 97–104. Feb 2007.

The molecular bases of plant resistance and defense responses to aphid feeding: current status C. Michael Smith, Elena V. Boyko. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Vol. 122, No. 1: pp. 1–16. January 2007.

Strip cropping wheat and alfalfa to improve the biological control of the wheat aphid Macrosiphum avenae by the mite Allothrombium ovatum. Ke-Zheng Ma, Shu-Guang Hao, Hui-Yan Zhao and Le Kang. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Env. Vol. 119, Issues 1-2: pp. 49-52.

Suppression of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealy bug (Pseudococcus sp) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations and damage by vermicomposts. Norman Q. Arancon, Clive A. Edwards, Erdal N. Yardim, Thomas J. Oliver, Robert J. Byrne and George Keeney.

Crop Protection. Vol. 26, Issue 1: pp. 29-39. January 2007.

Highlights:

  • The addition of various amounts of vermicompost to a soil-less bedding plant growth medium (Metro-Mix 360) used to grow greenhouse vegetables was tested for its effect on spider mites, aphids and mealy bugs.
  • Almost all the mixtures containing vermicomposts suppressed the arthropod pest populations, and decreased pest damage significantly compared to the Metro-Mix 360 controls.
  • The vermicompost had a considerable effect on pest reproduction over time.
  • Effect of the vermicompost substitutions tended to be least on spider mites, intermediate on mealy bugs, and greatest on aphids.
  • Possible mechanisms for the suppression include: the form on nitrogen available in the leaf tissues, the effect of vermicomposts on micronutrient availability, and the possible production of phenols by the plants after application of vermicomposts making the tissues unpalatable.