Summary Of Peer-Reviewed Publications On Insects In Field Crops - 2008

Summarized by: John Gavloski, Entomologist, Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives, Carman, Manitoba.

The following provides a summary of peer-reviewed research publications from 2008 relating to insects and insect management in field crops. Publications are grouped by commodity, with more general research (on topics such as insecticides, beneficial insects, etc.) categorized at the end of this document. Highlights from the research are noted for most publications, and occasionally I have provided some of my own comments regarding applications of the research. Although the list may not be complete, articles were selected based on their relevance to farmers and agronomists in Manitoba.

Canola

Flea Beetles

Impact of Decreasing Ratios of Insecticide-Treated Seed on Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) Feeding Levels and Canola Seed Yields. Soroka, Juliana J.; Grenkow, Larry F.; Irvine, R. Byron. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 6, December 2008, pp. 1811-1820. Location of Study: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and Brandon, Manitoba Highlights:

• Five treatments were evaluated; bare seed control, fungicide-only, and 3 ratios of insecticide plus fungicide in proportions of all, two thirds, or one third of the seeds coated with insecticide. • Under very heavy flea beetle feeding, seed yields and net cash returns were highest in plots where all the seeds were coated with insecticide, but when flea beetle feeding pressure was less extreme and canola growing conditions were favorable, plots where two thirds of the seeds were coated with insecticide had comparable seed yields and profits to those plots where all seeds were coated with an insecticide.

Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Responses to Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments. Tansey, J. A.; Dosdall, L. M.; Keddie, B. A.; Sarfraz, R. M. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 1, February 2008, pp. 159-167. Location of Study: Alberta Highlights:

• In greenhouse experiments, the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae, experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper) than did the striped flea beetle, P. striolata. • Mortality of overwintered crucifer flea beetles was higher when feeding on seedlings with insecticidal seed treatments than for crucifer flea beetles in August.

Effects of seeding date and canola species on seedling damage by flea beetles in three ecoregions. Cárcamo, H.A., Otani, J.K., Dosdall, L.M., Blackshaw, R.E., Clayton, G.W., Harker, K.N., O'Donovan, J.T., Entz, T. Journal of Applied Entomology. Volume 132, Issue 8, September 2008, pp. 623-631. Location of Study: Alberta Highlights:

• Studies were conducted in the south, central and northern regions of Alberta to assess the impact of seeding date (fall, April, May) and canola species (Brassica rapa, B. napus) on flea beetle damage to canola. • In southern Alberta, canola planted in April escaped flea beetle damage, unlike the May-seeded plots. In northern Alberta, flea beetle damage was lower in the May-planted plots compared to those planted earlier. • Because canola growers need to plant early to maximize yields, crops in central and northern Alberta may be at greater risk of flea beetle damage than in southern Alberta.

Impact of Planting Dates and Insecticide Strategies for Managing Crucifer Flea Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Spring-Planted Canola. Knodel, Janet J.; Olson, Denise L.; Hanson, Bryan K.; Henson, Robert A. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 3, June 2008, pp. 810-821. Location of Study: North Dakota Highlights:

• Peak emergence of adult flea beetles usually coincided with the emergence of the early planted canola, resulting in greater feeding injury in the early planted canola than later planted canola. • Of the insecticide treatments tested, the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied at 21 days after planting provided the best management of flea beetles, regardless of planting date.

Effects of seed size and seed weight on seedling establishment, vigour and tolerance of Argentine canola (Brassica napus) to flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. Elliott, R. H., C. Franke, G. F. W. Rakow. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Volume 88, pp. 207-217. Location of Study: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Highlights:

• Compared with small seeds, large seeds improved seedling establishment, shoot weight, biomass and yield by 1.1, 1.6-2.0, 3.0-3.5 and 1.5 times, respectively. • Seedlings from large seeds are more vigorous and tolerant to flea beetle damage than seedlings from medium or small seeds.

Diamondback Moth

Diamondback moth females oviposit more on plants infested by non-parasitised than by parasitised conspecifics. Choc, Yasuyuki, Masayoshi Uefune, and Junji Takabayashi. Ecological Entomology. Volume 33 Issue 5, pp. 565 – 568. Location of Study: Japan Highlights:

• When offered a choice, female diamondback moth lay more eggs on plants with non-parasitized conspecific larvae than on plants with parasitized larvae. • It is hypothesized that one reason for this preference is avoidance of plants where a relatively high risk of parasitism is expected due to the emergence of parasitoids from the parasitized host larvae.

Sublethal effects of spinosad on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Yin, Xian-Hui, Qing-Jun Wu, Xue-Feng Li, You-Jun Zhang and Bao-Yun Xu. Crop Protection. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2008, pp. 1385-1391. Location: China. Highlights:

• Sublethal concentrations of spinosad applied to diamondback moth caused lower pupation rate and pupal weight, reduced fecundity and egg size, and reduced hatchability of the smaller eggs. Survival of the offspring was lower and development time was prolonged. • Sublethal concentrations of spinosad may still reduce population growth of diamondback moth by affecting development and reproduction.

Others

Emergence and Seasonal Activity of the Entomophagous Rove Beetle Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Canola in Western Canada. Broatch, J. S.; Dosdall, L. M.; Yang, R.-C.; Harker, K. N.; Clayton, G. W. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 6, December 2008, pp. 1451-1460. Location of Study: Lacombe, Alberta Highlights:

• Adults of the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata feed on eggs and larvae of root maggots, and larvae parasitize root maggot pupae. • The emergence and seasonal activity periods of A. bilineata in canola were well synchronized with occurrence of its principle root maggot hosts Delia radicum (commonly called cabbage maggot) and Delia platura (commonly called seedcorn maggot), with beetle emergence beginning shortly after the onset of egg laying by the root maggots.

Sunflowers

Using Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Egg Density to Estimate Damage and Economic Distance in Oilseed Sunflower. Mundal, Kirk D.; Brewer, Gary J. Journal of Economic Entomology. Volume 101, Number 3, pp. 969-975. Location of Study: North Dakota. Highlights:

• Banded sunflower moth egg densities sampled at plant stage R3 can predict reductions in total seed weight, seed number, and percentage of seed damage. • Banded sunflower moth eggs can be accurately counted in the field using a binocular 3.5 headband magnifier. An Economic Injury Level was developed counting egg density per 6 bracts per bud when plants were in the R3 stage. The average economic injury level was about 5.9 eggs per 6 bracts. • A technique for measuring economic distance, the distance an economic population extends into the field, is discussed. • With sampling eggs there is a period of about 10 days between sampling and early anthesis (stage R5) when control measures would need to be taken.

Flax

Potato Aphid

Efficiency of a herbivore–plant interaction: conversion of biomass from flax (Linaceae) to aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Lamb, R.J. and L. Grenkow. The Canadian Entomologist. Volume 140, Number 5, pp. 600–602. Location of Study: Winnipeg, Manitoba. Highlights:

• The potato aphid is very efficient at converting plant tissue consumed into insect tissue. • On flax seedlings, 3.3 mg of plant tissue is required to produce 1 mg of aphid tissue.

Small Grain Cereals

Wheat Midge

Seasonal development of wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Saskatchewan, Canada. Doane, J.F., and Olfert, O. Crop Protection: Volume 27, Issue 6, June 2008, pp. 951-958. Location of Study: Saskatchewan Highlights:

• Results from 2 years of study (1984 and 1985) showed: Overwintering diapause of wheat midge larvae ended May 14th and May 9th; pupae first appeared in samples on June 15 (139 degree-days (DD); >6ºC) and June 10 (125 DD); adult wheat midge and the parasitoid Macroglenes penetrans began to emerge at all locations on July 6 in 1984 (411 DD; >6ºC) and on July 9 in 1985 (447 DD). Adults of both wheat midge and M. penetrans were present throughout July. • The use of temperature and day-degree accumulation in relation to development is discussed as a predictive tool for management decisions.

Aphids

Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals. Davis, J. A., and Radcliffe, E. B. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 1, February 2008, pp. 9-16. Location of Study: Minnesota Highlights:

• Green peach aphid had its highest reproductive potential among cereals on winter wheat, with rye >barley > oats. • Green peach aphid was found to colonize barley, rye, and winter wheat, but not oats. • Mean generation time, net reproductive rate, doubling time, and finite rate of increase were significantly different between host plants.

Other Insects On Small Grain Cereal Crops

Growth and yield of barley in relation to grasshopper feeding damage. Begna, S.H., and Fielding, D.J. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Volume 88, Issue 1, January 2008, pp. 219-227. Location of Study: University of Alaska Fairbanks. Highlights:

• In experiments conducted in growth chambers, densities of the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes, equivalent to 50 and 75 grasshoppers per m2 decreased grain yield by 19 and 36% respectively. Most of the yield loss was accounted for by reduced seed weights, while protein content per seed remained nearly constant. • Yield loss was proportionally less than the reduction in leaf area due to grasshoppers. • Root:shoot ratios were not affected by grasshopper feeding. Apparently root growth slowed enough and relatively more assimilates were allocated to above-ground growth to maintain a constant ratio of above- to below-ground dry matter.

Corn

European Corn Borer

Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females. Dorhout, David L., Sappington, Thomas W., and Rice, Marlin E. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 5, October 2008, pp. 1280-1290. Location of study: Iowa. Highlights:

• European corn borer flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. • For unmated females, duration of the longest flight was highest the first night after emergence, declining significantly by 5 days of age. In contrast, duration of the longest flight for males was lowest at 1 day of age, increasing significantly by 3 days of age. • Flight speed of females was roughly twice that of males at all ages. • Unmated females engage in obligate migratory flight the first full night after emergence. The duration of this flight was about 2 hours, with some adults flying continuously for the full 8 hours of darkness.

Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots. Carroll, Matthew W., Glaser, John A., Hellmich, Richard L., Hunt, Thomas E., Sappington, Thomas W., Calvin, Dennis, Copenhaver, Ken, and Fridgen, John. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 5, October 2008, pp. 1614-1623. Location of Study: Iowa Highlights:

• For detecting European corn borer related plant stress in corn, spectral vegetation indices targeting carotinoid and anthocyanin pigments are not as effective as those targeting chlorophyll. • Feeding and stem boring by European corn borer larvae may increase the rate of plant senescence causing detectable differences in plant biomass and vigor.

Small-scale dispersal of the European corn borer and its relevance for resistance management in Bt maize. Engels, H., A. Sinha, I. Schuphan and S. Eber. Journal of Applied Entomology. Volume 132 Issue 8, pp. 675 – 680. Highlights:

• Dispersal distance may be influenced by plant size, weather conditions during the flight, pheromonal pattern in the field and the timing of the flight.

Soybeans

Soybean Aphid And Natural Enemies

Seasonal Abundance of Resident Parasitoids and Predatory Flies and Corresponding Soybean Aphid Densities, with Comments on Classical Biological Control of Soybean Aphid in the Midwest. Noma, Takuji; and Brewer, Michael J. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 278-287. Location of Study: Michigan. Highlights:

• Six parasitoids and nine predatory fly species were detected over 4 years by using potted plants infested with soybean aphids placed in soybean fields. • Most numerous were the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Braconidae) and the predatory flies Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Cecidomyiidae), and Allograpta oblique (Syrphidae). L. testaceipes was more abundant late in the soybean growing season, A. oblique was more abundant during vegetative growth, and A. aphidimyza was common throughout the season.

Aphidophagous Predators in Iowa Soybean: A Community Comparison across Multiple Years and Sampling Methods. Schmidt, Nicholas P.; O'neal, Matthew E.; and Dixon, Philip M. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 101, Number 2, March 2008, pp. 341-350. Location of Study: Iowa Highlights:

• In comparison with a similar study conducted 26 years ago, fewer native coccinellids (lady beetles) were observed, with the most abundant being the exotics Harmonia axyridis (the multicoloured Asian lady beetle) and Coccinella septempunctata (sevenspotted lady beetle). • Four aphidophagous taxa accounted for >94% of the total captured: Toxomerus spp. (species of Syrphid flies), H. axyridis (multicoloured Asian lady beetle), Orius insidiosus (insidious flower bug), and Chrysoperla spp. (green lacewings).

Voracity and Prey Preference of Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for Immature Stages of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Soybean Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Butler, Casey D.; and O'Neil, Robert J. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 4, August 2008, pp. 964-972. Location of Study: Purdue University, Indiana. Highlights:

• The number of prey attacked by the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus, increased as more prey were provided. • Insidious flower bugs displayed a preference for soybean thrips, by disproportionately attacking soybean thrips over soybean aphid regardless of the relative densities of the two prey.

Effect of Ant Attendance by Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Predation and Parasitism of the Soybean Aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Herbert, John J.; and Horn, David J. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 5, October 2008, pp. 1258-1263. Location of Study: Ohio. Highlights:

• Laboratory experiments examined the effect of attendance by the ant Monomorium minimum on populations of soybean aphid. • Ants were observed harassing or killing insidious flower bugs, Orius insidiosus, and multicoloured Asian lady beetles, Harmonia axyridis. Attendance interfered with both predator species, resulting in reduced predation and an increase in aphid numbers up to 10-fold in the presence of ants. • Ants were not observed directly interfering with the parasite Aphidius colemani, but the number of parasitized aphids was higher in aphid colonies that were left unattended by ants.

Soybean Aphid And Insecticides

Efficacy and Nontarget Effects of Reduced-Risk Insecticides on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Its Biological Control Agent Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Kraiss, Heidi; and Cullen, Eileen M. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 391-398. Location of Study: Wisconsin. Highlights:

• The effect of 3 reduced-risk insecticides (pyrethrins, insecticidal soap, and narrow-range mineral oil) was determined for nymphs and adults of soybean aphid, and on one of the aphids key biological control agents, the multicoloured Asian lady beetle. • Pyrethrins and narrow-range mineral oil caused 100% mortality to soybean aphid nymphs and adults by 72 hours posttreatment. Insecticidal soap caused equivalent mortality to the nymphs during the same period, and adult mortality was 83.3%. • Pyrethrins were highly toxic to first instars of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle (98% mortality), but they had no effect on third instars, pupae, or adults. Mineral oil and insecticidal soap were moderately lethal to first (48.9 and 40% mortality, respectively) and third (31.9 and 38.8% mortality, respectively) instars of multicoloured Asian lady beetle, but had no effect on pupae or adults. • Pyrethrins, insecticidal soaps, and narrow-range mineral oil may prove useful for soybean aphid management in organic soybean.

Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Kraiss, Heidi, and Eileen M Cullen. Pest Management Science. Volume 64, Issue 6 , pp. 660 – 668. Location of Study: Wisconsin. Highlights :

• Two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, were evaluated for their effect on survivorship, development time and fecundity of soybean aphids and multicoloured Asian lady beetles. • Both azadirachtin and neem seed oil significantly increased mortality of aphid nymphs (80 and 77% respectively) while significantly increasing development time of those surviving to adulthood. • Both neem formulations significantly reduced survival to adulthood of first-instar lady beetles, while only azadirachtin reduced third-instar survivorship.

Soybean Aphid - General

Within-Plant Distribution of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Development of Node-Based Sample Units for Estimating Whole-Plant Densities in Soybean. McCornack, B. P.; Costamagna, A. C.; and Ragsdale, D. W. Journal of Economic Entomology. Volume 101, Number 4, pp. 1488-1500. Location of Study: Minnesota Highlights:

• Average nodal position where soybean aphids were found on soybean remained within the top half of the plant. • Selecting the node with the highest aphid density multiplied by the total number of infested nodes can be used to predict aphids on remaining soybean components.

Flight Performance of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Under Different Temperature and Humidity Regimens. Zhang, Ying; Wang, Limin; Wu, Kongming; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.; and Heimpel, George E. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 301-306. Location of Study: China Highlights:

• The flight potential of the soybean aphid was studied under a range of conditions using a computer monitored flight mill system. • Winged aphids that were 12 to 24 hours old exhibited the strongest flight behaviour, with average flight durations of 3.3-4.1 hours, which represents flight distances of 4.6-5.1 km. • The optimum temperature range for flight was 16-28ºC, and optimum relative humidity was 75%.

Alfalfa

Insecticidal control of late-season plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) infestations in Manitoba has no effect on alfalfa seed quantity and quality. Mostafa, A. M., and N. J. Holliday. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Volume 88, Number 4, pp. 763–770. Location of Study: Manitoba. Highlights:

• Insecticides were applied to alfalfa seed fields in late August and September to reduce plant bug numbers. • Despite significant reductions of plant bug numbers, there were no significant effects of treatment on total seed yield per unit area, seed weight, percentage germination or percentage of hard seeds. • The practice of applying an insecticide in August to control late-season plant bugs is economically unjustified within the range of plant bug numbers encountered in this study.

Do Cultivar and Burning Affect Forage Yield and Incidence of Verticillium Wilt or Insect Pests in Alfalfa Stands? Acharya, S.N., H. C. Huang, H. A. Cárcamo, S. K. Basu, T. Entz, S. Erickson and D. Friebel. Agronomy Journal. Volume 100, Issue 3, pp. 742-747. Location of Study: Lethbridge, Alberta. Highlights:

• Burning had a significant but variable impact on abundance of alfalfa plant bugs, lygus bugs, aphids, and leafhoppers but not on abundance of alfalfa weevil. • Burning did not affect forage yield or incidence of verticillium wilt of alfalfa. • Burning should not be used as a production strategy for alfalfa.

Potatoes

Colorado Potato Beetle And Insecticides

Reduced viability of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, eggs exposed to novaluron. Alyokhin, A., Sewell, G., and Choban, R. Pest Management Science. Volume 64, Issue, 1. pp. 94-99. 2008.

Pymetrozine Causes a Nontarget Pest, the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to Leave Potato Plants. Chang, G. C.; and Snyder, W. E. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 1, February 2008, pp. 74-80. Location of Study: Washington State University Highlights:

• Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide that targets aphids. • Colorado potato beetle larvae become more active and are less likely to remain on a host plant after exposure to pymetrozine. • Potato growers who use pymetrozine against aphids also might benefit in terms of Colorado potato beetle control.

Neural actions of imidacloprid and their involvement in resistance in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Tan, Jianguo, Vincent L Salgado, and Robert M Hollingworth. Pest Management Science. Volume 64, Issue, 1. pp. 37-47. 2008.

Colorado Potato Beetles - General

Potato Field Colonization by Low-Density Populations of Colorado Potato Beetle as a Function of Crop Rotation Distance. Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J. D.; Watmough, James Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 5, October 2008, pp. 1575-1583.

Flight Take-Off Performance of Colorado Potato Beetle in Relation to Potato Phenology Mbungu, Nsitu T., and Boiteau, Gilles. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 1, February 2008, pp. 56-60.

Influence of Fertilization on the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in Organic Potato Production. Boiteau, G.; Lynch, D. H.; and Martin, R. C. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 575-585.

Other Insects

Timing of injury and efficacy of soil-applied insecticides against wireworms on potato in Virginia. Kuhar, T.P., and Alvarez, J.M. Crop Protection. Volume 27, Issues 3-5, March-May 2008, pp. 792-798.

Variation in Tolerance and Resistance to the Leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Among Potato Cultivars: Implications for Action Thresholds. Kaplan, I.; Dively, G. P.; and Denno, R. F. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 3, June 2008, pp. 959-968.

Effect of an Alternate Weed Host, Hairy Nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the Biology of the Two Most Important Potato Leafroll Virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) Vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera). Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.; and Novy, Richard G. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 592-600.

Stored Grains

Rusty Grain Beetles

Thermal imaging to detect infestation by Cryptolestes ferrugineus inside wheat kernels. Manickavasagan, A., D.S. Jayas, and N.D.G. White. Journal of Stored Products Research. Volume 44, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 186-192. Location of Study: Manitoba. Highlights:

• An infrared thermal imaging system was developed to detect infestation by larvae, pupae and adults under the seed coat on the germ of the wheat kernels. • Thermal imaging has the potential to identify whether the grain is infested or not, but is less effective in identifying which developmental stage is present.

Red Flour Beetle

Determination of Mortality of Different Life Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Stored Barley Using Microwaves. Vadivambal, R.; Jayas, D. S.; and White, N.D.G. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 3, June 2008, pp. 1011-1021. Location of Study: Manitoba. Highlights:

• Complete mortality of all life stages of red flour beetles can be achieved at a power level of 400 W and an exposure time of 56 s or at 500 W for 28 s. • Eggs were the most susceptible to microwave energy and adults were the least susceptible. • Quality characteristics such as α-amylase, diastatic power, soluble protein, viscosity, and density of the barley malt treated at 500 W for 28 s were same as the control sample, whereas the samples treated at 400 W for 56 s were significantly lower.

Rice Weevil

Toxicity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Cinnamaldehyde-Related Compounds to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Jun-Ran; Choi, Dong-Ro; and Ahn, Young-Joon. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 6, December 2008, pp. 1960-1966. Location of Study: Korea. Highlights:

• Cassia and cinnamon oils demonstrated fumigant activity against rice weevils.

Insect Monitoring

Evaluation of Color Traps for Monitoring Lygus spp.: Design, Placement, Height, Time of Day, and Non-target Effects. Blackmer, J.L., Byers, J.A., and Rodriguez-Saona, C. Crop Protection. Volume 27, Issue 2, February 2008, pp. 171-181. Highlights:

• Several colours of traps coated with adhesive were used to capture lygus bugs and several other herbivores and predators in alfalfa. • More lygus were trapped from late afternoon to dusk compared to all other times of the day. • Male lygus were more likely to be captured on traps placed 20 cm above the ground; traps placed 50 and 100 cm above the ground caught similar numbers of males and females. • The highest number of plant bugs was captured when traps were placed in a cleared area between 2 alfalfa field; lower numbers were captured on traps at the edge and in the centre of the field.

Insecticides (General)

Applied aspects of neonicotinoid uses in crop protection. Elbert, A., Matthias Haas, Bernd Springer, Wolfgang Thielert, and Ralf Nauen. Pest Management Science. Vol. 64, Issue 11. pp. 1099-1105. Highlights:

• The technical profiles and main differences between neonicotinoid insecticides, including their spectrum of efficacy, are described.

Insecticide Performance Studies

Transitional Sublethal and Lethal Effects of Insecticides After Dermal Exposures to Five Economic Species of Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Vernon, R. S.; Van Herk, W.; Tolman, J.; Saavedra, H. Ortiz; Clodius, M.; and Gage, B. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 365-374. Location of Study: British Columbia; Ontario Highlights:

• Sublethal effects of some insecticides on wireworms were noted, where wireworm behaviour was altered but wireworms may or may not end up being killed. • Some species of wireworms move to the soil surface when exposed to certain neonicotinoid insecticides.

Mortality of a Wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after Topical Application of Various Insecticides. Van Herk, W. G.; Vernon, R. S.; Tolman, J. H.; and Saavedra, H. Ortiz. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 375-383. Location of Study: British Columbia; Ontario. Highlights:

• Ten insecticides representing 7 chemical groups were applied topically at various concentrations to evaluate their relative toxicities to the European wireworm, Agriotes obscurus. • Fipronil, clothianidin, chlorpyrifos, and thiamethoxam seemed to be the most effective. In contrast, the high concentrations of spinosad, tefluthrin, diazinon, imidacloprid and acetamiprid required to kill wireworms suggests that these chemicals may be ineffective for wireworm control in the field. • The temperature that insects are exposed to after exposure to insecticides may significantly affect their mortality.

Repellency of a Wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), on Exposure to Synthetic Insecticides in a Soil-Less Bioassay. van Herk, W. G.; Vernon, R. S.; and Roitberg, B. D. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 534-545. Location of study: British Columbia. Highlights:

• Imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lindane, and tefluthrin elicited slight to moderate repellency at the highest concentrations tested. • Clothianidin elicited no longer- or shorter-range repellency. • The high concentrations of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid needed to elicit repellency are considered higher than the concentrations that would be applied to wheat seeds in the field.

Effect of temperature on the morbidity and recovery of the Pacific Coast wireworm, Limonius canus, following contact with tefluthrin-treated wheat seeds. van Herk, W. G. and R. S. Vernon. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Volume 126, Issue 3, pp. 228 – 232. Highlights:

• Late instars of the Pacific Coast wireworm were exposed to wheat seeds treated with tefluthrin at 10 g active ingredient/100 kg wheat seed for 2 minutes at 10, 15, 20, and 25ºC. • All wireworms were moribund within 20 minutes of first exposure and recovered fully within 7 hours. • The time required for recovery after exposure decreased as both temperature and wireworm weight increased. • The ability of wireworms to recover from tefluthrin-induced morbidity may seriously limit the efficacy of this insecticide in reducing wireworm populations in the field.

Pesticide Residues And Exposure

Abnormal Foraging Behavior Induced by Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid in the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Yang, E. C.; Chuang, Y. C.; Chen, Y. L.; and Chang, L. H. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 6, December 2008, pp. 1743-1748. Location of Study: Taiwan. Highlights:

• Sublethal dosages of imidacloprid resulted in delays in return visits to feeding sites by honey bees. This time delay in return visits is concentration-dependent. The lowest effective concentration was found to be 50μg/L (about 41.6 ppb). Notes: • In other studies, the residue of imidacloprid detected in sunflower, corn, and canola were all <10 ppb, thus acute poisoning would not be occurring. What needs to be tested is whether it is possible for the toxin to accumulate in the honey bee’s body to reach the effective dosage through several flower visits and induced abnormal foraging behaviour.

Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and Clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Abbott, V. A.; Nadeau, J. L.; Higo, H. A.; and Winston, M. L. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 101, Number 3, June 2008, pp. 784-796. Location of study: British Columbia. Highlights:

• Larvae of the wild bees Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata were fed pollen with either 0 (control), low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid (O. lignaria) or clothianidin (M. rotundata). • There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid.

Using Reports of Bee Mortality in the Field to Calibrate Laboratory-Derived Pesticide Risk Indices. Mineau, P.; Harding, K. M.; Whiteside, M.; Fletcher, M. R.; Garthwaite, D.; and Knopper, L. D. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 546-554. Highlights:

• A database containing more than 2 decades of honey bee hive poisoning incidents from the United Kingdom (Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme [WIIS]) and corresponding pesticide use surveys were used to attempt to explain honey bee poisoning incidents in the field using models derived from pesticide use information, laboratory-generated bee toxicity data (defined as a hazard ratio; application rate divided by LD50), and physico-chemical properties of the applied pesticides.

Beneficial Insects

Lady Beetles

Larval Feeding on Bt Hybrid and Non-Bt Corn Seedlings by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Moser, Susan E.; Harwood, James D.; and Obrycki, John J. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 525-533. Location of Study: University of Kentucky. Highlights:

• Zoophytophagy is a behaviour where a primarily carnivorous species feeds on plant material. This behaviour is thought to sustain predators during times of low prey availability, and leaf tissue feeding by lady beetles has typically been attributed to their need for water. • Both third- and fourth-instars of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and Coleomegilla maculate consume leaf tissue, with fourth instars being significantly more likely to feed on corn seedlings. • In this study, tissue feeding regularly occurred even though lady beetle larvae had constant access to water and a daily supply of aphids.

Avoidance responses of an aphidophagous ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, to aphid-tending ants. Oliver, Thomas H., Ian Jones, James M. Cook, and Simon R. Leather. Ecological Entomology. Volume 33 Issue 4, pp. 523 – 528. Location of Study: United Kingdom. Highlights:

• The lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata, moves away from patches of aphids with Lasius niger ants, but also avoid laying eggs in these patches. • Lady beetles also detect ant semiochemicals and alter egg laying strategy accordingly. • Ant semiochemicals may signal the extent of ant territories allowing aphid predators to effectively navigate a mosaic landscape of sub-optimal patches in search of less well-defended prey. Such avoidance probably benefits both ants and lady beetles, and the semiochemicals could be regarded as a means of cooperative communication between enemies.

Impact of fruit feeding on overwintering survival of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, and the ability of this insect and paper wasps to injure wine grape berries. Galvan, Tederson L., Robert L. Koch and William D. Hutchison. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Volume 128 Issue 3, pp. 429 – 436.

Ground Beetles

Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Assemblages in Conventional and Diversified Crop Rotation Systems. O'Rourke, Megan E., Liebman, Matt, and Rice, Marlin E. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 1, February 2008, pp. 121-130. Location of Study: Iowa State University. Highlights:

• Overall activity density of ground beetles and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-year rotation (corn/ soybean/ triticale-alfalfa/ alfalfa) compared with the conventionally managed, 2-year rotation (corn/ soybean). • There may be potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for ground beetles and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.

Carabid Assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Rotation of Three Different Crops in Southern Alberta, Canada: A Comparison of Sustainable and Conventional Farming. Bourassa, S.; Cárcamo, H. A.; Larney, F. J.; and Spence, J. R. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 5, October 2008, pp. 1214-1223. Location of Study: Alberta Highlights:

• Crop type had a stronger effect than sustainable treatment on the expected species richness, diversity, and species composition of ground beetles. However, the activity density of ground beetles was consistently higher in plots under sustainable treatments than those maintained conventionally. Potato plots, which were sprayed with insecticides for pest control, showed a significantly lower activity density of ground beetles than the other crops (beans and wheat). • 62 species of ground beetles were collected during the 4 years of this study.

Effects of insecticide exposure on movement and population size estimates of predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Prasifka, Jarrad R., Miriam D Lopez, Richard L Hellmich, and Patricia L Prasifka. Pest Management Science. Volume 64, Issue, 1. pp. 30-36.

Others

The impact of ants on mineral soil properties and processes at different spatial scales. Cammeraat, E. L. H., and A. C. Risch. Journal of Applied Entomology. Volume 132, Issue 4, pp. 285 – 294. Highlights:

• A review of recent literature on fine scale soil changes resulting from the activity of ants is presented in this paper. • Ants affect soil properties at the fine scale, but also have effects at the hillslope and catchment scales with respect to surface hydrological processes and ecosystem functioning. • At the finest scale, most studies showed changed soil textures, lowered bulk densities and increased infiltration where ant burrows or mineral mounds are prominent. • Soil structure and aggregate stability are improved by ant activity. • The activity of ants increases the heterogeneity of soil infiltration rates and nutrient concentrations at the landscape scale, which in turn has consequences for the redistribution of sediments and nutrients by geomorphological and biotic processes.

Influence of Seed Head-Attacking Biological Control Agents on Spotted Knapweed Reproductive Potential in Western Montana Over a 30-Year Period. Story, Jim M.; Smith, Lincoln; Corn, Janelle G.; and White, Linda J. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 2, April 2008, pp. 510-519. Location of Study: Montana Highlights:

• Seed head insects can result in large reductions in spotted knapweed seed production. • Urophora affinis, Larinus minutus, and Larinus obtusus were the most abundant insects feeding on the seed heads of spotted knapweed. • Spotted knapweed density may not decrease significantly until the seed bank falls below a critical threshold.

The importance of honeydew as food for larvae of Chrysoperla carnea in the presence of aphids. Hogervorst, P. A. M., F. L. Wäckers , A.-C. Carette and J. Romeis. Journal of Applied Entomology. Volume 132, Issue 1, pp. 18 – 25. Location of Study: Europe. Highlights:

• Larvae of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, do consume honeydew even when they have access to aphids.

Blattella asahinai (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): A New Predator of Lepidopteran Eggs in South Texas Soybean. Pfannenstiel, Robert S.; Booth, Warren; Vargo, Edward L.; and Schal, Coby. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 101, Number 4, July 2008, pp. 763-768. Location of Study: Texas. Highlights:

• Large numbers of the cockroach Blattella asahinai, which resembles the german cockroach, were observed in Texas near the border with Mexico. At times they were observed at night on the foliage of soybeans in numbers often exceeding 50 per m row. • This cockroach was the dominant predator on eggs in soybeans during 2006, making up 36.4% of all predators observed feeding on eggs. • B. asahinai was only observed in the soybean canopy nocturnally, and it made up 53.7% of predators observed feeding at night. • B. asahinai may serve as an important beneficial insect in soybeans and other crops.

Grasshoppers - General

Influence of a Large Late Summer Precipitation Event on Food Limitation and Grasshopper Population Dynamics in a Northern Great Plains Grassland. Branson, David H. Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Number 3, June 2008, pp. 686-695. Location of Study: Montana. Highlights:

• This study examined grasshopper response to a large mid-August rain in a northern mixed-grass prairie site. • High quality grass growth occurred after a 9.1 cm mid-August rain. • Reduced survival was apparent in the 2 higher density treatments before the rain, indicating there was food-limiting density-dependent mortality. • The rainfall mediated the effects of competition because of the high quality vegetation growth. • The results show that large infrequent precipitation events in late summer can potentially increase grasshopper populations.

Harvesting grasshoppers Sphenarium purpurascens in Mexico for human consumption: A comparison with insecticidal control for managing pest outbreaks. Cerritos, René, and Zenón Cano-Santana. Crop Protection. Volume 27, Issues 3-5, March-May 2008, pp. 473-480.

Aphids – General

Pea aphid dropping behavior diminishes foraging efficiency of a predatory ladybeetle. Francke, Devon L., Jason P. Harmon, Chad T. Harvey and Anthony R. Ives. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Volume 127, Issue 2, pp. 118 – 124. Location of Study: Wisconsin. Highlights:

• Dropping reduced predation on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by all stages of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis. • Aphid dropping reduced predation by approximately 40%. • High rates of dropping and the subsequent decrease in foraging efficiency may partially explain why the multicoloured Asian lady beetle is less effective at controlling pea aphids than it is at controlling other aphid species that do not drop.

Alarm pheromone emission by pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, clones under predation by lacewing larvae. Schwartzberg, Ezra G., Grit Kunert, Ursula S. R. Röse, Jonathan Gershenzon and Wolfgang W. Weisser. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Volume 128, Issue 3, pp. 403 – 409.

Agricultural Extension

Entertainment–education and rice pest management: A radio soap opera in Vietnam. Heong, K.L., M.M. Escalada, N.H. Huan, V.H. Ky Ba, P.V. Quynh, L.V. Thiet and H.V. Chien. Crop Protection. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2008, pp. 1392-1397.