Crop Report: Issue 9, July 2, 2013

  

Weekly Provincial Summary

  • The warm and dry weather conditions are welcomed by many Manitoba producers. All crop types, particularly the warm season crops including grain corn and soybeans, are benefiting from the warmer weather.
  • The favourable weather conditions are also allowing some acres impacted by excess moisture to recover. However, there are portions of fields showing symptoms of excess moisture stress, including yellowing and slowed crop development. Crop death has also been noted in the lower areas of the fields.
  • The improved weather conditions are allowing herbicide and fungicide applications to continue. Aerial application is needed in cases where fields remain too wet for ground application.
  • Haying operations continue across Manitoba with average to below average yields reported.

  

Southwest Region

The Southwest Region experienced a week of much warmer, but still wet, weather conditions. Rainfall amounts ranged from 20 mm in northern regions to over 125 mm in south western portions of the region. The Pipestone, Reston, Hartney and Souris areas were again amongst the hardest hit with rainfall amounts now over the previous 10 days totalling in excess of 300 mm in isolated areas. Crop losses in the area south and west of #2 Highway are still being assessed as water levels drop. However, there is likely to be reduced yields due to waterlogged soils, increased disease pressure and nutrient deficiency. Areas north of #2 Highway, and in particular north of #1 Highway, were significantly drier and were able to absorb much of this rainfall with crop injury limited to low areas and later seeded, poorly emerged and flea beetle damaged canola.
Weed control spraying operations are virtually complete for much of the region with the exception being areas south and west of #2 Highway. Fungicide applications have just commenced on some of the winter wheat, first seeded cereals, field peas, and canola acres. Many of the early seeded spring cereals acres are caught up to the winter wheat crop; both crops are in the flag and early heading stage of development. Field peas are in the bud to 20% flower stage of development while canola growth stages are much more variable due to the severe flea beetle pressure and early season dry conditions. Canola growth stages range from 4 to 6 leaf to bolting to 20 to 30% flower. Fall rye is headed and flowered.
Corn crops are improving as growth benefitted significantly from the recent heat. Soybeans have taken the excess moisture well and are now primarily in the third trifoliate stage. Most fields have had one application of glyphosate; however, growth has been slow until recent heat, especially for earlier seeded soybeans.
Insect activity last week included continued flea beetle feeding in canola and cutworm injury in cereals, canola and flax. Alfalfa weevil numbers also increased dramatically last week and growers are monitoring fields closely as populations can be variable from field to field. Bertha armyworm moth monitoring continued to see low numbers this past week.

Pasture and hay growth continued to improve over this past week due to the warmer temperatures with most forages in their reproductive stages of development. First cut alfalfa is being cut with initial yield estimates of first cut alfalfa stands ranging from 80 to 85% of normal in northern portions of the region and only 80 to 85% of normal in south western portions of the region due primarily to excess moisture impacting acres. Water levels in sloughs and dugouts are 90 to 95% of capacity in northern regions and 100% to overflowing in south western regions.

Northwest Region

Over Tuesday and Wednesday, rains and heavy thunderstorms again affected most areas of the Northwest Region which were recovering from the previous week’s heavy rainfall. Precipitation amounts ranged from 25 mm around Roblin through Swan River and The Pas, with generally higher amounts of 40 to 60 mm in communities east of the escarpment. Between 100 to 150 mm were recorded locally on Tuesday south of the Grandview/Gilbert Plains areas where sloping land relief and previously saturated soils resulted in erosion damage and overland flooding of crops. Ponding due to excess moisture is more extensive in the flatter, less drained land areas of The Pas and Dauphin through to Eddystone. Through the weekend, weather conditions improved with stream flows decreasing and standing water beginning to subside.
Crop development improved with warmer temperatures; stand consistency and crop conditions have degraded. Cereals are rated as 65% of the acres in good to fair condition and canola at 60% good to fair. Winter wheat is headed, 75% of the spring wheat acres are at stem elongation, canola is at 10% flowering and 70% rosette, and 70% of the soybeans are around the third to fourth trifoliate stage. With the recent rainfall, many fields are beginning to yellow from excessive moisture. Late seeded, immature crops are most severely stressed and drown-outs are evident. Better drained fields are beginning to dry; however, regional soil moisture conditions are mostly at a surplus level. The Roblin to Swan River areas are less impacted by excess moisture and crop condition is better overall.

Aerial fungicide application on wheat was underway through the latter part of the week. Ground applications were limited by wet field conditions. Bertha armyworm trap counts are very low.

Condition of forage and pasture is rated as 85% good to fair. Moisture supply is surplus to adequate. Yields are expected to be average to below average. Rains and wet field conditions have prevented any forage harvest to date. Generally, pastures and native hay lands have more flooded, wet and soft conditions on the less drained low-lying lands at The Pas and adjacent to Lakes Dauphin, Winnipegosis and Manitoba. Dugout water levels are full to adequate in all areas.
 

Central Region

Warmer temperatures were very welcome for crop growth in the Central Region. A few areas remained relatively dry, but rain fell throughout the region with some areas receiving excessive amounts. Thundershowers were responsible for significant variability within a short distance. Localized flooding and standing water caused crop damage in areas of highest rainfall in the last two weeks, in areas ranging from Starbuck, Headingley, St. Francois Xavier, through Westbourne and Bagot and into the Gladstone area. Westbourne and Bagot received 150 to 200 mm, with the rest of the Portage area seeing amounts of 25 to 75 mm. Some areas in Starbuck, Headingley and St. Francois Xavier received over 150 mm in the last week to ten days. Much of the region received 12 to 50 mm precipitation over the week; areas to the west and south saw amounts in the lower part of the range. Some hail was reported in the Kane and Lowe Farm areas on Tuesday and in the Clearwater area on Friday, but no significant crop damage reported. High winds in the Gladstone area resulted in lodging in winter cereals. Standing water in areas with higher rainfall amounts continue to be a concern, with areas seeing crop damage.
Some acres remain unseeded due to excess moisture. Some of these acres will see forage seed and greenfeed planted.

Windy conditions and rain showers impacted herbicide and fungicide applications, but good progress was made this past week as herbicide applications range from 75% to fully complete.

Growth is improving on most crops although stands of many crops are uneven. The recent rains will result in an increase of acres with reduced crop stands.

Cereal crops development range from tillering to many in flag leaf emergence and some acres starting to head. The most advanced spring wheat fields may see fungicide applications made for fusarium head blight by the end of the week. Leaf diseases are evident, especially in fields with cereal stubble from the previous year.
Most canola ranges from early rosette to bolting and early flower and up to forty to fifty percent bloom. Most fields received a first herbicide application and many received a second application. Herbicide applications should wind up this week on the latest seeded fields. Flea beetle feeding dropped off in most fields, although still a concern in some with monitoring continuing. Reseeded fields are looking good. Fungicide applications for sclerotinia management continue. Blackleg lesions are reported in a number of fields, but most significant concern is reported in the southwest part of the region. Fungicide applications were made to lessen the impact of the disease.

Corn crops are improving with the hot, humid conditions, ranging in development from the V3 to V4 stage. Soybeans range from unifoliate through to fourth trifoliate stage. The most advanced fields have a few flowers. Most fields have seen one application of glyphosate, and second applications continue. Many soybean fields are yellowed but are expected to improve with the good growing conditions.

Fall rye and winter wheat have headed. Fungicide applications continue in winter wheat. Most fields are stagey, and timing for fusarium head blight suppression, if necessary, will be difficult. The most advanced winter wheat fields are in the early milk stage.

Cutworm activity has declined. Diamondback moth monitoring continues and some larvae were found. Trap counts are highest in eastern parts of the region. Bertha armyworm trap counts are low. Grasshopper activity has increased and the headlands of a number of cereal and canola fields were sprayed, mostly in eastern areas.

Baling of first cut hay continues with average yields expected for most areas. Excellent progress was made in some areas, while excess rain and high humidity has been a real hindrance in others. Alfalfa weevil pressure has advanced cutting and baling before optimum timing in some fields. Most pastures are growing rapidly and are in good to excellent condition, although some still suffer due adverse conditions. Dugouts are full.
 
 

Eastern Region

Rainfall amounts of 5 to 25 mm fell this past week in the Eastern Region. Crops in general appear to be doing well across the region. With some rainfall early last week and higher daytime temperatures, crops are growing rapidly. Crop stages are as follows: winter wheat is headed out, canola on average is 50% rosette and 50% flowering, cereals stems have elongated and head emergence is beginning, soybeans are 20% vegetative and 80% flowering and corn is showing 8 to 10 leaves.
 
Most herbicide applications are complete. Some second pass herbicide applications on corn and soybean remain but will be done shortly. Fungicides applications are the current focus; winter wheat acres are receiving fungicide applications for fusarium head blight. Fungicide applications at the flag leaf timing on oats, barley and wheat will be done this week if warranted. Some sclerotinia fungicide applications on the earliest seeded canola crop will happen this week.
Insect activity in the region include some diamondback moth larvae in canola, European skipper larvae in winter wheat and armyworm larvae in ryegrass; no threshold levels were met. Grasshopper activity has increased with insecticides being applied in winter wheat, spring wheat and soybeans, mainly along the perimeter of the fields.

Haying continues in the Eastern Region with progress varying from 5 to 25% standing, 15 to 50% cut and 25 to 85% baled or silaged. Within the region, southern areas are nicely underway while northern areas are nearing completion of first cut. In the northern areas, approximately 95% of alfalfa and alfalfa/grass fields were harvested as first cut hay/silage. Regrowth of these fields is looking good and a second cut can be expected within the next two to three weeks. Approximately 20% of tame hay was harvested. Native grasses remain standing. Across the region, average percent of normal yields are: alfalfa 95% of normal, grass/alfalfa 95%, other tame hay 90% and wild hay 50%. Pasture conditions in the region are rated as 50 to 90% good, 10 to 25% fair and 0 to 25% poor. Livestock water, including dugouts, is rated at 100% adequate.
 
 

Interlake Region

The Interlake region saw a mix of sunshine and showers over the past week. Rainfall ranged from 35 to 45 mm and up to 75 mm in the Woodlands area. There is localized flooding of low areas in crop and hay land in the very northwest and southwest of the region and areas along Lake Manitoba. However, hot conditions generally allowed for good crop growth across the region.
Annual crops are progressing well. Fungicide application on winter wheat is general across the region as fusarium head blight risk is high. Canola is bolting with sclerotinia control underway in the southern areas and soon to begin in the northern areas of the region. Soybeans are in the third trifoliate and are advancing rapidly. Spring wheat is mostly in the flag leaf stage with some fields starting to head in the south Interlake.

Alfalfa seed crops are in early bloom stage with leafcutter bee release underway. Hot weather on the weekend allowed for excellent bee activity and many producers will have released their bees through this period.
Haying operations are general with the majority being harvested as round bale silage. Yields are variable with new stands yielding above average while aged stands have yields below average. Pasture conditions are considered good with water supplies adequate across the Interlake.