Crop Report: Issue 12, July 21, 2014

  

Weekly Provincial Summary

  • Good growing conditions, including warmer temperatures and minimal rainfall, advanced crops and allowed crops impacted by excessive moisture to continue their recovery.  Favourable weather also allowed producers to make good progress with haying operations and applications of fungicides.
  • However, continuing wet conditions in some areas of Manitoba are impacting crops, hay fields and pastures.
  • Disease pressure is being monitored, with reports of brown girdling root rot and blackleg lesions in canola, brown spot disease and bacterial leaf blight in soybeans, and fusarium head blight in winter wheat.
 
 

Southwest Region

There was minimal precipitation across the Southwest Region with some areas receiving less than 5 mm. Crop conditions continue to improve throughout the region with the moderate temperatures ideal for crops in the reproductive stages of development.
 
The late seeded cereal crops are at flag leaf stage to early head emergence with the most advanced cereals finished flowering and into grain filling. Majority of the early seeded canola is in full bloom. Late seeded canola is at the bolting stage. Some canola fields that struggled with excess moisture could use some precipitation to help soften compacted soils. Some fields are also suffering from brown girdling root rot and are pinching off at soil level.  The earliest soybean fields are flowering. Soybeans are showing good recovery from the iron chlorosis deficiency symptoms seen earlier in the season. Brown spot disease continues to be seen on the lower leaves of soybeans. Sunflowers and corn are doing well with the warmer weather. Field peas are in full flower; some fields have more disease pressure than others.
 
Wheat fields are being monitored for wheat midge. Bertha armyworm numbers are low in the region. Fungicide applications have wrapped up in many early seeded cereal fields. Fungicide application for sclerotinia in canola is continuing. Most late seeded canola has a reduced canopy which will help mitigate the risk of disease pressure.
 
On land that is accessible, haying progressed last week with the favourable weather. There is still a large amount of hay land that is inaccessible due to either inundation or washed out roads. Yields are average to above average across the region with average quality. Native hay will be minimal as it is mostly lower lying land and remains under water. Pasture situation has improved and is holding up well, although some shortages exist. Land continues to be inundated in the southwest areas of the region.  Dugouts are full.
 

Northwest Region

Warm temperatures over the past week help improve crop conditions throughout the Northwest Region. However, crops are rated from very poor to excellent depending on location. Rainfall amounts over last week were negligible. The excessive moisture conditions earlier in the season resulted in loss of crop in low spots, significant crop yellowing and crop stunting. Fields that were too wet to seed in the spring are more visible as summerfallow and chemfallow acres.
 
Approximately 65% of the cereal crop is at the heading and flowering stage, 70% of the canola crop is flowering with the remainder in the rosette stage, and 50% of the soybeans are in the vegetative stage of growth and the remaining 50% are flowering. The majority of field peas are blooming with some pod development beginning.
 
Fungicide applications were made where feasible. Fungicide applications may not be made to some canola crops that are continuing their recovery from the stress of too much moisture. There are some reports of cabbage maggot activity confirmed in some canola fields in the Swan Valley. Bertha armyworm monitoring traps continue to show low moth numbers throughout the region.
 
Haying conditions improved significantly over last week with many producers cutting and baling. Yields are extremely variable throughout the region and are reported as average to below average. Grass and alfalfa hay is being harvested in good condition. Hay quality will be known as quality analyses are completed. Seeding of oats for greenfeed continued over the past week. Pastures appear to be slowing in growth. However, pastures and hayfields along the lakes are still submerged with many not having any access due to high water.  Dugouts are full.
 

Central Region

In Central Region, the week began with cooler temperatures but switched quickly to hot and humid conditions. The hot weather allowed for rapid advancement in many crops. There was little to no rainfall accumulation for the week, only scattered showers and heavy dews. Standing water in low areas is still evident throughout the region.
 
Crops in general benefited from a break in the rains, although conditions vary. Some areas that haven’t received as much rain and have been able to handle the water, the crops look excellent. A few areas with lighter soils would benefit from some precipitation, and irrigation has begun on potatoes on light textured soils. Broadleaf crops are showing symptoms of excess moisture stress, although cereal crops are affected as well. In general, early seeded crops of all types are faring better than late seeded crops, although drowned out spots are also evident in early seeded fields. Damage continues to become more evident, particularly in canola fields.
 
Majority of the late seeded cereals are flowering. Late seeded canola is flowering early due to excess moisture stress. Soybeans are flowering with most in the R1 to R3 stage. Most fields are greening up with warmer weather and nodulation. Edible beans continue to show symptoms of iron chlorosis, as well as shortened growth in areas of high rainfall. Corn is variable in growth stage; many fields are suffering due to excess moisture. Corn unaffected by excess moisture is advancing well and is starting to tassel.
 
Wild oats are appearing above the canopy in cereal fields and are more evident in thinner stands, especially in winter wheat, where crop competition wasn’t sufficient to keep grassy weeds in check.  Some wild oat patches may also be a herbicide resistance issue.
 
Fungicide applications in spring wheat and canola are wrapping up. Parts of the region report higher numbers of acres treated due to continuing wet and humid conditions, along with heavy crop canopy. Many later seeded canola fields will not receive fungicide treatment as the crop stand doesn’t warrant it. Fungicide application for white mould on dry beans continues on fields with lush plant growth and where air movement is minimal.
 
Fusarium head blight is reported in many winter wheat fields, even those having received fungicide treatment. Blackleg lesions are evident on leaves in many canola fields. No reports to date of stem lesions. Girdling brown root rot is reported in some canola fields, and more reports of various root rots are expected. Some leaf spotting is evident in soybeans, both brown spot and bacterial blight. Bacterial blight is also present in edible bean fields.
 
Diamondback moth monitoring is complete; overall numbers are low. Larval feeding activity was seen but minimal, and cocoons are being found in the field. Monitoring continues for bertha armyworm moths. Numbers are low to date. Cereal leaf beetle larvae were found in several fields at low levels not requiring treatment. Wheat fields are monitored for wheat midge. Monitoring in sunflower fields for sunflower beetle activity is occurring, with no reports to date of numbers sufficient to require insecticide. No reports of soybean aphid. Headlands and roadsides have been treated for grasshoppers where numbers are the highest, as well as some fields.
 
First cut is approaching completion, while second cut for dairy quality hay is underway. Yields are average to slightly above average. Pasture conditions are adequate to surplus, and water supplies are adequate.
 

Eastern Region

Varying amounts of rainfall occurred throughout most of the Eastern Region with totals ranging from 2 to 13 mm. Crop growth responded favourably to the warmer temperatures, combined with minimal rainfall. Fields that had waterlogged spots are starting to dry up. The weekend’s rain prevented some spraying operations.
 
Producers have better access to ground application of pesticides due to the drier conditions, although planes are still busy with aerial applications. Fungicides on canola are being applied, as well as on spring wheat for fusarium head blight suppression. Ground rigs focused on second applications of glyphosate on soybeans and some fungicide on spring cereals. Soybeans are being sprayed at the very end of the timing window for glyphosate.
 
Expectations for spring cereal and canola crops have not improved significantly. However, earlier seeded crops appear to be doing better than the later seeded crops.  Soybeans finally started to improve in condition due to warmer temperatures. Crop colour improved and increased plant height is observed. While most fields are flowering or beginning to flower, the plants are still smaller with fewer trifoliates than in previous years along with shortened internode length.  It is also noted there is a higher degree of branching. Corn and sunflower crops are showing rapid growth as temperatures increased.  Winter wheat crop condition continues to deteriorate as dead areas in fields become more apparent. As well, some fields have higher levels of fusarium head blight infection as symptoms become more evident.
 
There are some reports of spraying for diamondback moth larvae in canola from the Stead area. In the northern part of the region, overall levels of insect pests are lower than expected thus far.
 
Haying is in full swing across the region. The warm, sunny weather helped to significantly decrease the amount of standing water in low lying hay fields and pastures. Approximately 55 to 60% of first cut intended for beef cattle is complete with yields reported as average. Dairy producers are beginning to take their second cut. Pastures are in good condition. Availability of livestock water is rated as 100% adequate.
 

Interlake Region

Trace amounts of precipitation fell throughout parts of the Interlake Region last week. On Friday, July 18 a thunderstorm with high winds and hail resulted in some crop damage in the south Interlake area. Warm temperatures sped up plant development in field crops, as well as hay and pastures.
 
Majority of spring cereal crops have headed, while canola has flowered and podding is occurring. Flax and soybeans are flowering. Corn keeps growing and improved with the hotter temperatures. Winter wheat fields are starting to mature with many crops starting to turn colour.
 
Insect pressure has fallen significantly with no reports of insect damage occurring throughout the Interlake Region. Early maturing forage grass seeds are being swathed. Majority of forage grass seed fields still have a week or two before swathing. Leafcutter bees are busy pollinating alfalfa seed fields with the warm temperatures.
 
Hay yields are averaging 2 to 3 tons per acre. Hay fields impacted by earlier rainfalls are now passable with producers able to cut and bale. Native grass stands still are under water and/or not passable, making some producers wonder if any production from these areas will occur. Dugout conditions are good.