Crop Report: Issue 16, August 18, 2014

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary

  • Harvest of spring cereal crops has started in Manitoba.  Early reports indicate average yields and quality.
  • Winter wheat harvest continues. Yields remain variable, ranging from 30 to 90 bu/acre with quality below average due to fusarium damaged kernels.
  • Swathing of canola continues, as well as swathing and preharvest applications in spring cereals.
  • Thunderstorms passed through some areas of Manitoba over the weekend, resulting in welcomed precipitation for continued growth in crops such as corn, soybeans and sunflowers, grain filling in cereals, canola and flax, and regrowth in forages and pastures. 

Southwest Region

 Crops throughout the Southwest Region continue to show improvement as a result of the warmer and drier weather. Showers throughout the region during the weekend resulted in 10 to 30 mm of precipitation.

Spring wheat, oat and barley crops are maturing rapidly with the warmer temperatures and are within 10 to 14 days of swathing or preharvest glyphosate application. Isolated reports of stem rust in oats are reported. Winter wheat harvest began in some areas of the region; quality and yields are poor. Fusarium damaged kernel levels are ranging from 5 to 20%, and test weight is low. Disease pressure is especially high in areas south of Highway #1 due to high moisture conditions. Ergot levels are higher in comparison to previous years. Fusarium head blight levels, although present in spring wheat, look to be somewhat reduced when compared to winter wheat at this point.
 
The majority of early seeded canola is finished flowering with much of the late seeded crop coming out of flower as well. This year’s crop is much shorter than normal due to the early season’s excess moisture which has renewed interest in straight cutting. Sclerotinia levels look to be at low levels due to the reduced canopy and drier weather conditions experienced over the last month. There are no reports of any issues with bertha armyworm.
 
The soybean crop is in the R5 stage of development with pod and seed development occurring on the four upper most nodes on the main stem. Maturity is over a month away, however the warmer temperatures are advancing acres quickly. Peas have been desiccated and with some good weather will be harvested this week. Flax continues to have excellent yield potential as the crop enters boll filling stage of development. The disease Pasmo has not been noted to date, although most flax crops are sprayed with fungicide for its control. Lodging after recent rains is minimal. Corn and sunflowers are benefitting from the heat but are still behind normal. 
 
Weekend rains were welcomed by producers with pastures and hay lands. Haying continues on native grass on accessible areas but many acres are still inundated and/or inaccessible. Second cut hay continues on stands worth cutting but many have poor regrowth due to the hot and dry conditions. Greenfeed is growing and would benefit from some rain. Cutting of silage barley has started with average yields reported. High ground in pastures is decreasing in productivity, however lower lying pastures are doing well. Dugouts are full.

 

Northwest Region

A few localized thunderstorms passed through the Northwest Region over the weekend resulting in less than 13 mm in most cases.
 
Crop development continued to be favorable over the week as good growing conditions prevailed through most of the region. Regionally, approximately 40% of the wheat crop is in the milk stage and about 60% in the dough stage. Twenty percent of the canola crop is at some stage of flowering with about 80% podded. Ten percent of the soybeans are flowering and 90% are podded. The field pea crop is fully podded. Some crops are showing multiple stages of growth, particularly canola.
 
There are symptoms of fusarium head blight and glume blotch appearing in some wheat crops. Canola fields in parts of the region are showing signs of sclerotinia, blackleg and root rot. Wild oats, barnyard grass, foxtail barley and Canada thistle are becoming more evident, particularly where the crop is less competitive. Also, cleavers is becoming more visible in canola crops. Lygus bugs are confirmed in parts of the Swan Valley where some canola fields have been sprayed. Harvest of winter cereals and early seeded barley has just begun in the more southern part of the region
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Haying progressed significantly with the good weather over the last week. Native hay is being harvested in low spots that have dried over the last several weeks. Many producers along the lakes and The Pas remain impacted by the inundation of water from spring flooding. Pastures that have been rotationally grazed over the summer are still in relatively good shape, while those that have had continuous grazing are in average to poor condition due to hot dry weather. Rain would improve pastures. Some fall seeding of forage fields is taking place this fall for renovation purposes due to flooded conditions.
 

Central Region

Hot, humid conditions last week continued to advance crops in the Central Region. Morning dews range from moderate to heavy, partially dependent on crop canopy.  There was no rain through the week, with isolated thundershowers starting on Friday and continuing through the weekend. Rainfall was variable, with most of the region receiving little or no precipitation. Areas including Carman, Rosenort, St. Adolphe, Starbuck and Portage la Prairie received amounts ranging from 25 to 50 mm. Most areas are still looking for rain, especially for later maturing crops. Topsoil conditions are poor and large cracks are evident in many fields. Crops are maturing and turning colour rapidly in areas that have poorer soil moisture holding capacity or where crops have shallow root systems due to the earlier excess moisture. Moisture stress is evident in corn, soybean and edible bean fields due to lack of rain, and lower leaf drop has occurred. Crop fill is a concern in the later maturing crops if additional rain is not received.
 
Winter wheat harvest continues; it is wrapping up in eastern areas of the region with western areas reporting 50% complete. Yields to date range from 40 to 90 bu/acre with average yields from 50 to 65 bu/acre. Quality is disappointing for many fields with fusarium damaged kernels reported in the harvested sample ranging from 0.5 to 20%. Crop residue is baled and removed from harvested fields.
 
Much of the barley crop in the eastern parts of the region is harvested, with respectable but lower yields than last year. The first of the spring wheat fields are combined with good yield and quality reported. Fusarium head blight impact is far less evident in spring cereals. Preharvest applications continue, as does swathing. Oats are turning rapidly, which may result in lower bushel weights and yields. Some oats are harvested with early reports of average yields. The later seeded canola fields are close to the end of flowering. Some swathing of canola has started with 10 to 20% swathed in the most advanced areas. Sunscald is common in many fields, giving the appearance of early maturity; scouting is encouraged to time swathing correctly. A few canola fields have been harvested.
 
Soybeans are podding with most fields in eastern areas at the R4 to R5 and into R6 stage, while western areas report R3 to R4 stages. Early leaf drop is reported in the driest fields. Edible beans are fully podded and filling; some fields are starting to turn early due to dry conditions. Corn is variable; pollen shed is complete most fields. Corn unaffected by excess moisture is advancing well, although some fields are being impacted by lack of precipitation. Sunflowers are blooming; flowering is complete in the most advanced fields.
 
Late infection of rust are reported in oat fields in eastern parts of the region. Blackleg lesions are evident in many canola fields. Brown girdling root rot has been reported in some fields, and other root rots are being found. Some leaf spotting is evident in soybeans, both brown spot and bacterial blight. Most of the disease presence is in the mid and lower canopy. Root rots are also present. Bacterial blight is being found in edible bean fields.
 
Some sunflowers have been sprayed for lygus and/or banded sunflower moth, with lygus more of a concern. Very low levels of soybean aphid have been found. Beneficial predator insects are also being found at levels that should keep numbers well in check, but scouting is still encouraged. Control measures continue for grasshoppers where numbers and feeding injury warrant. European corn borer numbers are low, but again scouting is encouraged.
 
Haying continues in the region, with second cut, greenfeed and cereal silage harvest progressing. Second cut yields range from one to two bales per acre. Roadway and wild hay is being baled. The lack of precipitation will limit the possibility of a third cut in many areas.  Pastures are also showing stress due to the drier conditions.  Both pastures and forages would benefit from additional rainfall.  Hay land and pastures remains flooded along Lake Manitoba, and most of the wild hay along the lake will be un-harvestable.
 

Eastern Region

The Eastern Region saw trace rainfall amounts last week with the weather being warm and sunny. However, rain began after midnight last night with amounts of 12 mm reported. Topsoil moisture level on the majority of annual crop land in the region is rated as adequate.
 
Winter wheat harvest has begun with yields ranging from 55 to 80 bu/acre. Grain quality is low due to fusarium damaged kernels and will be downgraded. Spring cereals continue to progress rapidly in the hot weather. The recent rain will slow the progress, as well as harvest. Some small patches of wilted soybeans were noted. Both soybeans and corn will benefit from the recent rain, but would welcome additional precipitation to maintain yield potential. However, those crop types and sunflowers are growing rapidly with the heat. Other crops are advanced enough that the dry weather will have little effect on yield potential.
 
Haying is in full swing with approximately 90% of the hay crop harvested. Cattle are doing well on pasture, and the pastures will benefit from the recent rainfall. Availability of water for livestock is rated as 100% adequate.
 

Interlake Region

Scattered showers fell through parts of the Interlake Region last week, delaying harvesting for a day or two in winter wheat and forage grasses. High humidity is resulting in poor drying conditions for harvest.
 
Winter wheat harvest was in full swing last week with majority of acres combined. Reports of less than average yields and grain samples showing anywhere from 1 to 5% fusarium damaged kernels. The heavy rains in June and July likely provided the proper conditions for fusarium head blight infection in winter wheat. Spring cereals are maturing rapidly with the favourable growing conditions. Preharvest glyphosate applications on some spring wheat fields in the south Interlake area were done last week. Canola swathing is slowly getting started with some acres already cut and majority being cut in the week to come. Soybeans continue to pod and fill. Timothy fields continue being harvested with reports of yields being average.
 
Some second cutting of alfalfa fields is taking place. Haying of native/coarse hay continues where soil moisture allows. Some continuously grazed pastures are declining in productivity due to lack of rainfall and grasshopper pressure. Dugout conditions are rated as good.