Crop Report: Issue 5, June 1, 2015

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary

  • Provincially, seeding progress in Manitoba is estimated at 93% complete.
  • Many areas in Manitoba recorded below freezing temperatures on Saturday, May 30. Frost injury symptoms are evident. Crop growth and final plant stands are being assessed. The level of crop damage will depend on the stage of crop development, minimum air temperatures reached, and the duration of those temperatures.
  • Reseeding of mainly canola acres continues from mid-May’s frost, wind and excess moisture conditions. Producers have also begun reseeding canola in some areas due to crop damage from the May 30 frost.
  • Weed control operations were hampered by weather conditions towards the end of last week and will remain a priority for producers as crops and weeds continue to advance.
  • Flea beetle activity in canola continues to be a concern in some areas of Manitoba.
     
     

Southwest Region

Moderate temperatures and little precipitation allowed for excellent seeding progress throughout the Southwest Region. Most areas are either completed or close to completion with overall seeding progress estimated to be 90 to 95% complete. Only the last of the barley, canola, flax, soybeans and silage corn acres are being planted.

Freezing temperatures were recorded over this past weekend, with lows ranging from -3 to -4oC over much of the Southwest Region. However, minimum temperatures of -6 to -7oC were reported in valley areas of the region. The lack of moisture, dew formations and the length of the overnight sub-zero temperatures increased the potential severity of the freezing temperatures. It is anticipated there is significant crop injury to most crops, but in particular canola, flax and winter cereals. Preliminary estimates are as much as 50 to 60% of canola acres and 20 to 25% of flax acres have experienced freezing injury that will need to be assessed for plant stands and possible reseeding.

Winter cereals were also likely affected from this weekend’s freezing temperatures, with fall rye in the vulnerable boot stage of development. The majority of winter wheat was just entering the stem elongation stage of development and will hopefully have escaped significant injury. Most soybeans planted in the last seven to ten days appear to have avoided the frost as few acres were emerged. Early planted spring cereal crops are in the three to four leaf stage.

Weed control measures in all crops are on hold to allow crops and weeds to recover from the frost. The lack of significant moisture has also slowed weed emergence and development which is also contributing to delays.

Flea beetle feeding in canola continues to be a problem in many fields and will be of particular concern after the recent frost; feeding on the stem is being noted in many fields. Some reseeding has already occurred prior to this weekend’s frost due to flea beetle damage.

Recent frosts impacted alfalfa fields and will affect first cut production.  In the southwest corner of the region, wet conditions are hampering cattle movement to pasture. The recent drier weather is helping. Grasses in pastures are in the 4 to 5 leaf stage but growth remains quite slow. Cattle are moving to pastures with some still receiving feed supplementation. Dugouts in the region range from 90% of capacity to over-capacity. 

 

Northwest Region 

There were a few scattered showers throughout the Northwest Region mid-week, with some localized areas received up to 3 mm of rain. Day time temperatures were hot at the start of the week and cool over the weekend. Most districts of the region received frost over the weekend. The areas that appear to be hardest hit by frost were the Roblin, Gilbert Plains and Swan River areas. Some parts of the Swan Valley received frost on Friday, Saturday and Sunday mornings. The lowest temperatures occurred in the Swan Valley with temperatures as cold as -10oC reported by some producers in the southern part of that district. Crop damage caused by freezing temperatures is being assessed and reseeding operations have begun in some cases. The severity of the frost damage and the total number of acres affected is not yet known.
 
Good seeding progress was made throughout the Northwest Region with progress at approximately 99% complete. Approximately 99% of the cereal acres are planted and 95% of those have emerged. About 99% of the canola crop is seeded with approximately 60% emerged. Both flax and field pea acres are at least 95% planted with emergence around 70%. For soybeans, 95% of acres are planted, along with 90% of the corn acres.
 
Weed growth is general and timely herbicide applications have begun in all areas of the region excluding The Pas.
 
Flea beetle activity continues to cause concern in some parts of the region where their feeding is severe on stressed and injured canola plants. Control measures were required in some canola fields in the Swan River district.
 
The freezing temperatures will impact alfalfa growth. Monitoring will be essential this week to see extent of damage. Pasture growth still remains slow due to cooler temperatures and limited rainfall. Cattle are being moved to pastures due to short feed supply.
 

Central Region 

In the Central Region, the past week started with seasonal temperatures, but declined towards the weekend. Rain showers on Thursday chased producers out of the fields for a day or two. Frost was reported in many areas on Saturday morning. Temperatures dipped as low as -7°C above the escarpment. Crop damage is evident, primarily in canola, although a few reports of injury to corn, flax, beans and other crops have been made. Crop damage due to excess moisture in low lying areas of fields is evident in places.
 
Assessments for re-seeding are being made in canola fields, and re-seeding has begun. Early seeded canola is under stress due to cold soils, and plant stands are less than optimum. Flea beetle injury is an added stress, as is excess moisture, in places, along with damage due to high winds. In some cases, frost has made the borderline decisions to reseed easier. Some canola fields will be reseeded for the second time. In locations in the region, temperatures dipped to -2 to -7°C for three to five hours. Frost injury is even noticeable in cereals, although primarily limited to leaf damage.
 
Seeding is reported as 90 to 95% complete for much of the Central Region. Central Plains area (Portage-Gladstone) reports 90 to 95% complete, while Pembina area has dropped to 85 to 90% complete, as re-seeding is taking place due to frost. Seeding of cereals is essentially complete for the region. Cereals are as advanced as the five leaf stage and tillering.
 
Soybeans and edible beans continue to go in; seeding is almost complete. AgriInsurance seeding deadlines have past for some crop types in some areas. Producers are waiting for the first trifoliate stage in beans to undertake rolling, where circumstances didn’t allow immediately after seeding. Corn planting ranges from 95% to 100% complete; some has emerged. Sunflowers are in.
 
Most winter wheat and fall rye fields are reported to be in excellent and good condition, with only a fraction of acres rated as fair. Winter wheat crop development ranges from tillering to stem elongation with rapid growth noted. Fall rye is also growing rapidly and some fields are in the flag to early heading stage.
 
Flea beetles continue to be the main insect concern at this point. Headland spraying continues, and some entire fields have been sprayed. Careful monitoring is required in fields that are under environmental stress, with less than optimal stands. Some cutworm injury is reported, and a field or two of soybeans has been reseeded.
 
Weather conditions of wind, rain and cold temperatures make herbicide applications a struggle. Advanced crop and/or weed stages have pushed producers and retailers to spray under less than optimal conditions, particularly before and after frost. Crop injury in cereals receiving grass control treatments is a risk, and poor weed control due to cold weather conditions will likely be seen in some fields, in both grassy and broadleaf weeds. Thinner canola stands will require careful monitoring for weed problems.
 
The mid-week rainfall and warmer temperatures improved forage crops and pasture conditions. The most advanced alfalfa is 50 to 55 cm tall. Most cattle have been moved to pasture. Pastures overgrazed last year are slow to recover, as are hayfields where a late cut was taken. Rain has replenished dugouts. 
 

Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulations in the Eastern Region ranged from 2 to 15 mm. Soil moisture conditions on crop land, hay and pasture land are rated as adequate to surplus. Temperatures declined at the end of the week with frost occurring in many areas on early Saturday morning. Crop damage is still being assessed, particularly for soybeans.
 
Seeding and herbicide applications resumed in the Eastern Region as fields became drier and standing water disappeared. Across most of the region, good progress was made with the focus on completing soybean seeding. Seeding is estimated at 95% complete in the region. Almost all barley and oats, 90% of canola, all flax, 95% of soybeans and all sunflowers and corn are seeded.
 
For crop already planted, spring cereal development ranges from emerging to the fourth leaf growth stage with tillers, canola is emerging to second leaf growth stage, soybeans are emerging to early unifoliate leaf growth stage and corn and sunflowers are emerging to V2.
 
Herbicide applications on winter wheat are a concern with both crop and weed growth stages advancing rapidly. Mid-week precipitation halted progress in the region, although producers returned to fields as soon as they could. Some herbicide applications to spring cereals are delayed to allow for crop and weed recovery after the freezing temperatures. There are concerns about timeliness of these applications given the forecasted rain for this week.
 
Increasing flea beetle damage is noted in canola; some insecticide applications for control have occurred. Increasing cutworm damage is also noted in spring cereals, canola, sunflower and corn and some insecticide applications have occurred. Some reseeding of canola is occurring due to the cumulative effects of poor emergence, past frost and insect damage.
 
Across the region, the majority of hay and pasture lands are in good condition. Hay is growing slowly. Approximately 70% of the cows are on pasture as the rain has slowed moving cows to pasture. Availability of livestock water is rated as adequate.
 

Interlake Region

Warm temperatures helped dry soil conditions allowing producers to get back onto their fields in the northern areas of the Interlake Region. Temperatures dropped towards the end of the week as a weather system moved in bringing cooler temperatures and precipitation. Night time temperatures once again went below 0oC causing frost damage on canola fields.  Fields around the Arborg, Riverton and Fisher Branch were impacted by frost with temperatures below -2oC recorded. Severity of damaged in canola fields ranges throughout the region, but damaged canola plants are observed in every field.
 
Seeding progress in the Interlake Region is 75 to 85% complete. Most cereals are seeded; canola is still being seeded as producers opted to plant their soybean acres prior to completing their planned canola acres. Cereal crops, as well as soybeans, corn, and sunflowers, are all starting to emerge.
 
In addition to frost, heavy flea beetle pressure was observed in many canola fields. Canola fields were being reseeded throughout the region due to both the frost and flea beetle damage.
 
In-crop herbicide application in spring cereals and oilseed crops will start this week as weed pressures increase.
 
Some green feed crops are yet to be seeded. Most cattle are on pasture; dugouts have ample water.
 
 
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