Crop Report: Issue 9, June 29, 2015


Weekly Provincial Summary

  • Severe weather systems containing strong winds, heavy rains and hail passed through isolated areas in several Regions of Manitoba. Damage to crops from hail and strong winds range from light to severe with assessments continuing over the next several days.
  • However, overall good growing conditions continue to advance crops, as well as allowing producers to make good progress on applications of herbicides for weed control and fungicides for disease management. Haying operations also continue.
  • There are areas within Manitoba that would benefit from precipitation.


Southwest Region

The Southwest Region saw favourable growing conditions during the week due to warmer temperatures and good soil moisture. Thundershower activity was reported in various areas of the region with hail and heavy showers resulting in precipitation amounts ranging from 10 to 70 mm. Some canola and wheat fields were affected by hail near Hamiota and Decker areas.

Early planted cereals are starting to head. Foliar fungicides targeted at flag leaf protection are being applied. Fungicides were applied to winter wheat fields for management of Fusarium head blight.

Staging of canola is variable within the region. Canola acres not impacted by May’s frost events are beginning to bolt and enter flowering. Reseeded canola acres are beginning to canopy and would benefit from precipitation.

Soybeans are at second to third trifoliate leaf stage and growing well with the hot and humid weather. The second round of herbicide application is underway in most fields. Field peas are flowering with no reports of any disease issues to date. Corn and sunflowers are growing rapidly with the heat.

Insect pressure is very low. Bertha armyworm counts are well below the economic threshold level.

Haying has just begun with yields below average with average quality. Rain showers in parts of the region are benefitting some pastures, while other pastures are being impacted by the high temperatures. Dugouts are at 80% capacity.


Northwest Region

Unsettled weather over the past week in the Northwest Region caused localized thunderstorms throughout the area. Rainfall amounts vary from zero to nearly 25 mm in localized parts of the Swan Valley, no precipitation in the Roblin area, and 6 to 25 mm at The Pas. There were reports of hail associated with some of the thunderstorms in the southern part of the region but no crop damage has been reported. Soil moisture conditions in the Northwest Region vary. The Ste. Rose, McCreary, Dauphin and The Pas areas have mostly adequate soil moisture while the Swan River and Roblin areas would benefit from precipitation as conditions are dry.

Approximately 50% of the wheat crop is at the tillering stage of growth while the remaining 50% has elongated or is at early heading. Overall, cereal crops in the Northwest Region are reported in good to fair condition.

Approximately 30% of the canola crop is in the seedling stage of growth, 50% is at the rosette stage of growth and 10% is bolting. A small amount of canola has started to flower. Overall, canola ranges from fair to poor condition, mostly because of poor and non-uniform emergence of reseeded fields.

Approximately 50% of the corn is emerging with 50% ranging in development from V1 to V5. All soybean acres are in the vegetative stage.

Weed control looks adequate with most herbicide applications complete. Where necessary, fungicide applications have begun on early seeded crops.

There continues to be some flea beetle activity in the Swan Valley, as well as grasshopper development in areas where the soils are a lighter texture, warm and dry.

On the eastern side of the region, haying for beef quality forage began last week and is being baled. Very little is cut as there is rain in the forecast. In the western part of the region, forage growth is limited due to a lack of moisture. Haying has not begun and producers are waiting to see if there will be adequate forage growth over the next couple of weeks. Both hay fields and pastures in the western areas of the region are rated in poor condition.


Central Region

In the Central Region, unsettled weather occurred throughout the week. Severe weather saw short-lived tornadoes confirmed in Manitou area. Much of the region saw rainfall amounts of 10 to 15 mm through the week, but thundershower activity in the Morden, Manitou to Darlingford areas on Wednesday brought as much as 100 mm in a localized area near Manitou; hail was also reported in the Morden area. Over the past weekend, several areas in the region saw severe weather. Winkler, Miami and Carman received precipitation amounts upwards of 50 mm. Severe weather, including hail and strong winds, was recorded in the areas of Stephenfield, Miami and Roseisle.  The most impacted areas include Roseisle and Miami where the size of hail ranged from golf ball to hard ball size. Significant crop damage is reported in that area, with some fields severely impacted. Wind also resulted in crop lodging to a much wider area in the region.

Crops are growing well and advancing rapidly with adequate moisture and warm temperatures. Cereal crops throughout the region look good. Fungicide applications at the Fusarium head blight timing have wrapped up in winter wheat, and continue in the most advanced spring cereals. Stripe rust and leaf rust continue to be reported, and will be controlled with the same fungicide application targeting head timing. However, foliar fungicides targeted at flag leaf timing continue where appropriate. Fungicide applications have begun in oats. The most advanced fields are starting to head out. Some crown rust has been reported.

Some canola stands are thinner than desired, but are starting to fill in. There is a wide range in canola development due to the varied seeding dates, particularly with reseeding having been necessary for many. Fungicide applications for the majority of canola fields in the eastern part of the region range from 30 to 70% complete, and continue as crops come into stage. Late reseeded canola is in rosette stage. There are reports of stressed canola fields bolting with plants only at 6 to 8 inches tall.

Soybeans are in the second to fourth trifoliate and have begun to nodulate. Yellowing due to iron deficiency chlorosis is reported in a number of fields. Warm weather will see the crop grow through this.

Edible beans are up to the third trifoliate stage. Flax ranges from 75 mm in height to flowering. Sunflowers range from V8 to R1. Peas are vining and will be flowering soon. Corn development ranges from V3 to V7 growth stage.

Most producers are caught up on herbicide applications. The last of the late seeded/reseeded crops are being sprayed, and second applications continue in soybeans.

Crop pests, including insects and disease pressure, are reported as average to below average. Diamondback moth and bertha armyworm trap counts are average to low. A high number of lauxanids are noted in cereals; these are often mistaken for wheat midge. Grasshopper nymphs are present near field edges and on roadsides at average populations to date.

Alfalfa first cut for high quality hay for the export market and local dairy producers is complete. Alfalfa grass first cut continues as weather permits. Preliminary yield estimates are average due to frost injury, winter injury, and a drier spring. Pasture growth is very good with the abundant moisture and warmer temperatures. Many producers put their cattle out early this spring and that may impact production later if weather conditions turn to drier. Rain has replenished dugouts and water supplies are considered adequate.


Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulations in the Eastern Region ranged from 2 mm to over 25 mm, with higher accumulations occurring in central and northern areas. Warm temperatures and good growing conditions occurred during most of the week and rainfall events were most often isolated thunderstorms of varying intensity. Soil moisture conditions on the majority of crop land, hay and pasture land are rated as adequate.

Spring cereal crops range in development from late flag leaf and head emergence to heading. Winter wheat is heading. Canola ranges from rosette/bolting to flowering. Soybeans range from second to fourth trifoliate stage with nodulation and nitrogen fixation proceeding. Sunflowers range from V4 to V8 with corn ranging from V5 to V8.


First pass post-emergent herbicide applications are mostly complete and producers are on to second passes, particularly in soybeans. Fungicide applications are done for flag leaf protection in spring wheat. Fusarium head blight fungicide applications in winter wheat are mostly done and such applications in spring wheat are on-going. Fungicide applications for sclerotinia in canola are also occurring. In some fields, producers are opting for aerial applications because of wet soil conditions.
Crops continue to grow rapidly. Symptoms related to transitional nutrient deficiencies in cereals, corn and soybeans lessened, as did iron deficiency chlorosis symptoms in soybeans.
Across the region, the majority of hay and pasture lands are in fair to good condition. Producers are in full haying mode with below average yields noted. First cut alfalfa is 80% complete and beef producers are starting haying operations. Pastures are growing well as producers rotate livestock through the paddocks. For first cut, it is estimated that 60% is standing, 20% is cut and 20% is baled or put up as silage. Availability of livestock water is adequate.

Interlake Region

Heavy precipitation, hail, and strong winds occurred during the weekend leaving crops flooded and damaged in isolated pockets of the Interlake Region. Rainfall amounts ranged anywhere from 5 to 55 mm with hail. In the Arnes area, there was 70 mm of precipitation as well as hail.
Fungicide spraying for flag leaf protection occurred last week on spring cereals and will continue this week. Spring wheat is starting to head in areas and will be sprayed for Fusarium head blight suppression towards the end of the week. Winter wheat fungicide spraying is complete in most fields are past the application timing. Barley fields are at the flag leaf to heading stage.
Canola fields are starting to flower throughout the region. Some late reseeded canola fields are in vegetative stages of development. Soybeans are at third to fifth trifoliate stage, and nodulation is occurring. Sunflowers staging is V4 to V6, and corn V5 to V7. Majority of soybeans are starting to green up as the plants grow through iron deficiency chlorosis symptoms. Alfalfa seed producers will start releasing leaf cutter bees on the fields as the alfalfa fields start to bloom.
Alfalfa/grass hayfields are showing damage from alfalfa weevil feeding. The top whorl of leaves has a shot hole appearance, and leaves are whitish-yellow from desiccation from moisture stress. As well, grasshoppers have hatched and feeding in hay and pasture land, compounding the moisture stress effect on the hay and pasture yields.