Crop Report: Issue 16, August 17, 2015


Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Crops are maturing rapidly across Manitoba due to last week’s above normal temperatures. Weather conditions did allow for excellent harvest progress to be made.
  • Harvest of winter wheat, spring wheat, barley and oats continues. Reported winter wheat yields range from 50 to 90 bushels per acre, red spring wheat yields 50 to 70 bushels per acre, general purpose/feed wheat yields 80 to 90 bushels per acre, and barley yields 70 to 80 bushels per acre.
  • Harvest of canola also started in the Central Region with early yields ranging from 30 to 50 bushels per acre.
  • Spring wheat quality has been good to date, although smaller seed size has been noted. Swathing of canola continues, as well as swathing and preharvest applications in spring cereals.
  • Lodging is a factor impacting harvest progress, yield and quality in some cereal crops.

Southwest Region

The Southwest Region saw above normal temperatures and only scattered showers over the past week. The exception was areas near Shoal Lake and Erickson that received 25 to 30 mm of rain on the weekend. The hot and dry weather allowed producers to complete some harvesting. There was also a rapid change in crop maturity.
Most winter cereals are harvested with average to above average yields; generally low fusarium damaged kernels and ergot levels reported. Early seeded spring cereals are in the firm to hard dough stage of development, with barley swathing and preharvest management of spring wheat on-going. Some early yield reports indicate average to slightly above average yields of both spring wheat and barley; spring wheat yields range from 50 to 60 bu/acre and barley 70 to 80 bu/acre. Low fusarium head blight levels are noted.

Canola crop maturity has advanced, with non-reseeded canola fields in the pod fill stage and beginning to dry down. Swathing of early seeded canola has started in the most southerly parts of the region, while most reseeded fields are well into the pod fill stage of development. Disease levels in both early and later seeded canola continue to be minimal.
Most field pea fields are being desiccated or swathed in preparation for harvest. Some early fields were harvested with yields in the 40 to 65 bu/acre range. Flax fields are in the boll fill stage of development.

Soybeans continue to respond favourably to the above normal temperatures with maturities in the late R4 to full R5 (seed set) stage of development. Corn and sunflower acres are advancing with the hot weather.
First cut hay is complete with average to below average yields. Second cut is underway with average to above average yields. Second cut will be limited in the areas with more extreme moisture conditions. Greenfeed cereals and millet are harvested with average to above average yields. The heat over the past week has slowed the regrowth of pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. Dugouts remain approximately 80 to 85% full across the region.

Northwest Region

Temperatures were hot throughout the Northwest Region during the week causing crops to advance quickly. Thunderstorm activity resulted in random rain showers throughout most of the region. Rainfall amounts ranged from 0 to about 12 mm. Soil moisture conditions are adequate in most parts of the region and excessive in some localized spots.
Crops are reported to be in very good to poor condition as harvesting operations get underway, including swathing canola and combining spring wheat. Preharvest treatments are being applied to crops as required and as weather conditions allow.
Approximately 10% of the winter wheat crop is harvested. About 70% of the spring wheat crop is in the dough stage and 30% is mature. The canola crop continues to improve and develop rapidly. Approximately 95% of the canola crop is podded with about 5% mature.
Approximately 10% of the corn crop is tasseling, 80% is at the blister stage of growth and 10% is at the milk stage. For soybeans, 10% of the crop is blooming while about 90% is podded. About 10% of the flax crop is flowering, 85% at the boll stage of growth and 5% is mature.
Crop insect pest activity throughout the region is low, with the exception of lygus bug activity reported in canola in the northern part of the Swan Valley.
First cut haying operations are almost complete, and second cut is underway with good yields reported. Cereal silage harvest is on-going, with average yields of 6 to 10 tons/acre; recent high temperatures are advancing annuals quickly. Pasture regrowth is good due to the precipitation over the past few weeks. Water supply is adequate.

Central Region

Temperatures soared last week in the Central Region, with humidex values approaching 40°C. Trace amounts of rain fell, with accumulations mostly below 15 mm for much of the region. There were some reports of hail in the Plumas area. Most areas have adequate moisture. However, in areas of highest accumulations, crop yellowing and stress conditions are evident. Wet conditions are causing issues with preharvest applications and swathing in the northwest area of the region. Lodged cereal fields made for poor drying conditions on the clay soil types. Extremely hot weather created some challenges, with several reports of equipment overheating.
Harvest of winter wheat and fall rye continues with much of the crop completed in the eastern part of the region. Yields of winter wheat are in the 55 to 90 bu/acre range; average is expected to be in the 65 to 75 bu/acre range. Spring wheat harvest continues with early reports of red spring wheat yields in the 60 to 70 bu/acre range, and general purpose/feed wheat averaging 80 to 90 bu/acre. It is anticipated as harvest progresses, yields will be wide ranging. Harvest progress is slower in fields impacted by lodging. Yield and quality loss of some degree has been seen due to lodging; areas of fields where there was substantial lodging report smaller kernels and some shrivelled kernels. Fusarium head blight levels appear to be much lower than last year in both winter and spring wheat. Early reports indicate red spring wheat proteins ranging from 12 to 15%, while general purpose/feed wheat are in the 11 to 13% range. Harvest management applications continue in spring wheat fields. Some fields are soft, as lodged crop prevented good drying conditions.
There is a wide range in canola development due to the varied seeding dates. The later seeded fields are fully podded, with no colour change. Significant progress has been made in swathing in the eastern part of the region, with all but the last seeded fields swathed and combining well underway. Some fields are seeing preharvest applications in preparation for straight-cutting. Early yield reports are variable, with the best looking stands yielding 40 to 50 bu/acre, while fields that struggled are as low as 30 bu/acre. Many fields are lodged due to heavy winds.
Sunflowers are growing well and monitoring continues for insects. Sunflower beetle numbers are low. Lygus numbers are at threshold levels or higher; most fields have been sprayed. Corn is advancing quickly and some fields would benefit from a rain.
Most soybean fields have finished flowering. Some fields are showing increasing damage due to excess moisture and subsequent root rots. Some of the earliest seeded fields are seeing leaf colour change. Reports of soybean aphids have not increased, and most fields are well below threshold level; only the odd field required an insecticide application. Beneficial insects are easily found in most fields and are keeping pest populations in check.
Edible beans are podding. With recent heavy rains, some fields are showing stress symptoms of yellowing. Overall most fields look good.
Pea fields are maturing and some are ready to harvest, but are being delayed where field conditions are wet.
Some fields have been cultivated, following harvest.
Hay harvest continues but has been impacted by the high humidity and recent rains. Second alfalfa hay cut is almost complete with good yield and quality. The wettest areas in the northwest part of the region report poor quality second cut; some is not advanced enough to take another cut and producers are waiting to see if the will be enough growth to warrant that second operation. Greenfeed is also being cut for forage. Pastures are rated good to fair.

Eastern Region

In the Eastern Region, the weather over the past week was hot and humid with occasional localized rainfall and severe thunderstorm events. Rainfall accumulations ranged from 12 to 35 mm. Some isolated hail storms occurred on August 12 in the Vita to Menisino areas and on August 14 in the Sundown and Woodridge areas. Wind damage to crops also occurred.
Winter wheat harvesting is 75% complete with an average yield of 70 bu/acre and average quality. The majority of spring cereal crops are mature with the remainder in the late hard dough growth stage. About 10% of the spring wheat is harvested with an average yield of 50 bu/acre range and average quality. Most spring wheat is either swathed or received a preharvest application.
About 30% of the canola crop is swathed or has received a preharvest application. Swathing will be in full swing this week on much of remaining acres as the crop is maturing quickly. Some canola harvesting may begin this coming weekend if weather is favourable.
Soybeans range from R5 to R6 stage. Sunflowers are in R6 to very early R7 growth stages with corn in the late silking (R1) to blister (R2) growth stages.
Reports of building soybean aphid populations continue. Levels in some fields exceeded the economic threshold and spraying occurred. Most fields are still below threshold levels and populations of natural predators are noted. Early and mid-May seeded fields are quickly approaching the R6 growth stage. Some reports of spider mite populations in soybeans were also received but levels reported were well below economic thresholds. Increasing reports of phytophthora wilt in soybeans are noted. Reports of sclerotinia wilt in soybeans are also being received but infestation levels that would warrant fungicide application are not noted. Sclerotinia in canola at levels higher than in the past few years continues to be reported with infestation levels being greatest in crops that did not receive fungicide.
Pasture conditions are rated at 80% good, 10% fair and 10% poor. Pastures are in good condition with pastures that have been rotationally grazed having good regrowth. Humid conditions kept haying at a slow pace. Currently, hay supplies are rated at 20% surplus and 80% adequate. Hay quality is rated as good. Availability of livestock water is adequate with dugouts half full.

Interlake Region

In the Interlake Region, hot temperatures and humid weather conditions were experienced. Isolated thunderstorms brought 5 to 15 mm of precipitation. The warm temperatures helped crops to continue development.
Harvest continues throughout the Interlake Region. Winter wheat harvest should be completed this week, depending on weather conditions. Harvesting of spring wheat began with reports of yields ranging from 60 to 70 bu/acre, with protein levels 13.5% to 14.0%. Spring cereal crops will continue to receive preharvest applications or swathed as crops reach maturity.
Canola continues to be swathed with 30 to 40% already completed; some fields left standing for desiccation. Combining canola could start towards the end of the week or weekend.

Soybeans continue to flower and form pods. Reports of aphids approaching economic thresholds in the North Interlake area are coming in but most levels are being controlled by beneficial insects. Harvesting of forage grass seeds continue with reports of average yields in timothy.
Hot temperatures enabled significant haying progress this past week. Haying of native hay land is in full swing. Annual crops are being cut for greenfeed and silage. Silage corn crops growing rapidly and yields look promising. Pastures are still rated as good. There is adequate water for livestock consumption.