Crop Report: Issue 8, June 20, 2016


Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Crops are advancing quickly in Manitoba. Over the weekend, many areas saw thunderstorms with heavy rainfall, strong winds, and hail. Assessments of crop damage are on-going.
  • The wet conditions continue to impact crops as symptoms of excess moisture stress, including yellowing and slowed crop development are evident in areas of Manitoba receiving higher amounts of rainfall. 
  • Herbicide applications continue as field conditions allow. Fungicide applications are also on-going, largely in winter wheat and spring wheat crops for management of leaf diseases and fusarium head blight.
  • Producers were able to continue with first cut haying operations, although precipitation and high humidity impacted progress.

Southwest Region

In the Southwest Region, rainfall amounts varied from 20 to 50 mm. Some areas in the region received higher amounts in thunderstorms with reports of hail and rainfall amounts in the 50 to 75 mm range. Overall, weather has been good for crop advancement.
Winter wheat and fall rye are at the heading stage. Application of fungicide on winter wheat is on-going and should be complete by the end of the week. Early seeded cereal crops are in the flag leaf to early heading stage with producers preparing to apply fungicide. Weed control in most cereal crops is complete; exception is some later seeded crops and that should be completed by the end of the week. Early seeded canola is starting to bolt and most late seeded canola is cabbaging out. Weed control is almost complete except for late seeded canola.
Soybeans are progressing well and most acres are in first to second trifoliate stage. Corn and sunflowers are advancing as recent rain and warm weather has helped. Early seeded peas are starting to flower and the crop is looking very good. Flax is progressing well and most fields have been sprayed.
First cut haying has started for some producers, but recent rain and high humidity has delayed baling. Some silage and wrapping is occurring.  Pastures are benefitting from the precipitation and are doing well. Dugouts are 95% full.

Northwest Region

Temperatures and rainfall amounts were extremely variable throughout the Northwest Region over the past week. Localized areas around and south of Ste. Rose, Makinak and McCreary received up to 25 mm of rainfall adding to the already wet conditions. Crops in this area are yellowing due to excessive moisture and weed control operations have resulted in rutted fields. Rainfall amounts north of Ste Rose through Dauphin, Roblin, Swan River and The Pas ranged between 0 and 12 mm. Soil moisture conditions range from short to adequate in most parts of the region, to excessive in localized parts of the Laurier/McCreary area and the Roblin area. High winds over the weekend caused damage to some crops. In general, most crops throughout the region are advancing nicely, with the exception of those crops suffering from excessive moisture.
Regionally, 30% of wheat is at the tillering stage of growth while 70% is elongating. Approximately 5% of canola is emerging, 45% is seedling and 50% is at the rosette stage of growth. Most of the field peas are in the vegetative stage of growth, while approximately 80% of the soybeans are also in the vegetative stage.
Herbicide treatments are nearing completion but applications continue as field conditions allow in areas challenged by wet field conditions. Reports of flea beetle activity are on the decline in the Swan River Valley, Roblin and The Pas areas as the canola crop progresses. There continue to be some reports of cutworm activity in those areas as well, but those have also declined in numbers. Diamondback moth monitoring trap populations continue to be highest in The Pas and Swan Valley areas.
Pastures have adequate growth as a result of periodic showers and warm temperatures. Grass and alfalfa fields are maturing. Dairy producers near Makinak have harvested alfalfa silage bales. Some hay has been cut around Dauphin and Swan River, while some fields have been harvested as chopped silage around Roblin. Weekend rains were welcome, particularly in areas that had been dry, although precipitation is posing a challenge to harvesting high quality hay.

Central Region

Rain and thunderstorms resulted in significant amounts of rain in several areas of the Central Region. Golf ball sized hail fell in Altona and Winkler, and even slightly larger south of Morden; smaller hail fell in many other areas with insignificant damage. Much of the region received 38 to 50 mm of rain through the week, with 100 mm and more southeast of Altona, in Letellier, and east of the Red River. Some areas of the region handled the rainfall well; in others standing water is a concern, especially in the later seeded crops. Yellowing of crop due to excessive moisture is evident; good drying conditions are needed, especially for the heavier clays. Although herbicide applications resumed, some fields will require additional days for drying. Strong winds are welcome for drying, but interfere with pesticide applications for others.
Seeding is complete. Recent emergence has been rapid with warmer temperatures and moisture. Excess moisture continues to be the concern; the more advanced crops appear to be handling the higher rainfall amounts better, although stand thinning is evident in those crops as well. Crop death in low spots of fields is more evident in the later seeded fields. There is standing water in some fields. Portage area and others report some reseeding of wet areas and greenfeed took place last week.
Cereals are growing rapidly, and most fields are tillering or starting stem elongation. A few of the most advanced fields are at the heading stage. The later seeded canola is emerging rapidly. The majority of the fields are in the rosette stage, and a number have reached the bolting stage. Flowering has begun in some fields, and fungicide applications will start this week. Flea beetle pressure continues to be a concern in a limited amount of later seeded fields.
Corn growth is rapid with the recent moisture and warmer temperatures. Soybeans are in the first to third trifoliate stage, depending on seeding date. Rapid growth is seen with the recent warmer temperatures. Iron deficiency chlorosis is becoming noticeable in a number of fields. In the more advanced fields, nodulation is evident and nitrogen fixation has begun. Post emergent rolling is complete, in part due to wet conditions. Herbicide applications continue.
eas have advanced, and fungicide application for leaf diseases has begun. Yellowing is evident where herbicide applications were made out of the recommended leaf staging, compounded by excess moisture.eas have advanced, and fungicide application for leaf diseases has begun. Yellowing is evident where herbicide applications were made out of the recommended leaf staging, compounded by excess moisture.
Flowering is complete in fall rye. Fungicide applications at the heading stage of winter wheat have been made.
Weed growth is rapid with the recent moisture and warmer temperatures. Herbicide applications continue to be a challenge, due to timing and field conditions. Weeds are getting ahead of the crops. Fields are soft, and ruts are visible in some of the wettest fields. On the wettest fields, there is little chance of applications being made in the foreseeable future. Some cereals are past the stage of application; impact to yield potential as a result of weed pressure is noted.
Diamondback moth numbers to date are generally low to moderate for the region; bertha armyworm trap numbers are low to date. Some minor feeding by grasshoppers has been reported. No reports of significant disease pressure in crops to date. Some tan spot, leaf rust and stripe rust is noted in winter and spring wheat fields.
Forages are growing quickly. Alfalfa is blooming and tame grasses are at heading stage. The moisture has generally been beneficial to the hay and pasture, but is impacting cutting and baling operations. Some alfalfa weevil is present; those fields have been cut to reduce damage. First cut dairy quality haying continues; some are ensiling due to the frequent rains. Average yields for first cut hay are: alfalfa 2 tons per acre, grass/alfalfa 1.75 tons per acre, and other tame hay 1.5 tons per acre. Wet fields and high humidity will make it challenging to put up dry hay. Livestock water supply is adequate.

Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulation in the Eastern Region over the last week ranged from as little as 8 mm to greater than 115 mm. Localized storm cells in the last half of the week resulted in higher rainfall accumulations in some areas, particularly in southern and northern districts. As well, some hail was noted in southern districts. Standing water in fields is very evident in higher rainfall areas and loss of yield potential is occurring due to excess moisture stress. Symptoms such as crop yellowing in spring cereals and soybeans and premature bolting in canola were noted. Producers continue to be concerned about not being able to apply herbicides and fungicides in a timely manner on some fields and are looking for good drying conditions in the coming week. Topsoil moisture conditions on cropland are rated from adequate to surplus across the Eastern Region with surplus conditions most noted in southern and northern districts.
Seeding is complete in the Eastern Region. Winter cereals are heading and flowering with some crops in the early milk stage. Spring cereals are at stem elongation with flag leaves emerging. Early seeded canola is in early flower with the rest of the crop from rosette to bolting. Field peas range from 10 nodes to very early flower. Most soybeans range from the second to fourth trifoliate leaf stage. Corn development ranges from V7 to V9.
First pass herbicide applications are approximately 90% complete in the Eastern Region. Progress in spring cereals, canola and soybeans is 90% complete. Field pea and corn herbicide applications are complete with both crops. Fungicide applications targeted at fusarium head blight suppression in winter cereals are mostly complete. Fungicide applications targeting flag leaves in spring cereals may start at the end of this week. As well, fungicide applications on early seeded canola may also start by the end of this week. Concerns about powdery mildew in winter and spring wheat continue to be noted. Also, producers expressed concerns about stand loss in soybeans on fields that experiencing excess moisture. Presence of aphids in spring cereals at below economic threshold levels is also noted.
Across the region, the majority of hay and pasture is rated in good condition. Hay fields are wet, causing challenges for cutting and baling. First cut haying progress is noted as 15% baled or silaged with an additional 10% cut and the remainder of the crop still standing. Quality is rated as good with alfalfa hay yielding 1.5 tons per acre and grass/alfalfa hay yielding 1.75 tons per acre. Pastures are wet and livestock are looking for high spots to graze. Availability of livestock water is adequate.

Interlake Region

Warm weather followed by extreme rainfall events occurred throughout the Interlake Region last week. During the weekend, several storms moved through the Interlake Region resulting in large amounts of rainfall and in some areas hail. Precipitation amounts varied due to localized rainfall events, with amounts from 8 to 45 mm. Strong winds followed after the storm.
Seeding throughout the Interlake Region is estimated to be 97 to 100% complete. Producers were able to seed many of the unseeded acres. For the acres that still haven’t been seeded, producers are looking into seeding greenfeed, hay, or forages for seed production.
Spraying progress is estimated to be 50 to 60% complete as most producers finished the first round of herbicide applications. Dry conditions earlier in the week allowed producers to spray most acres.
Winter wheat completed flowering last week in the South Interlake, while some fields in the North Interlake should be sprayed this week for fusarium head blight suppression. Spring cereals continue to develop as staging varies from 3 to 4 leaf up to flag leaf; in some cases the earliest seeded wheat fields are close to heading. Canola fields vary from emerging to rosette stage and starting to cabbage.
Soybeans range from unifoliate to second trifoliate stage. Corn is growing rapidly with the warm temperatures and ranges from V1 to V5 stage. Some alfalfa seed fields have been sprayed for alfalfa weevil in the past week. Forage grass seed field have reached heading stage and depending on the grass type, some grasses have finished flowering. Bee incubation is midway through as most producers are 10 to 15 days into the incubation period.
Warm temperatures and variable rains this past week encouraged hay and pasture development and growth of forages. Alfalfa is in the late bud to early bloom stage. Pastures are rated in good to excellent condition and are supplying feed in excess of what is normally expected for this time of year. There is adequate water for livestock to drink.