Crop Report: Issue 10, July 4, 2016


Weekly Provincial Summary 

  •  The warmer and drier weather conditions were welcomed by Manitoba producers. All crop types, particularly the warm season crops including grain corn and soybeans, are benefiting from the warmer weather.
  • The more favourable weather conditions are allowing some acres impacted by excess moisture to recover. However, continuing wet field conditions and symptoms of excess moisture continue to be noted across most regions. As fields continue to dry, the impact of the excessive moisture to yield potentials become more evident.
  • Fungicide applications are also on-going, with many producers opting for aerial application where fields remain too wet for ground application.
  • Sporadic rainfall, high humidity and excessive moisture continue to impact first cut haying operations in areas, although producers were able to make progress.

Southwest Region

Most of the Southwest Region received rainfall over the past week. There was 15 to 50 mm of precipitation, with larger amounts coming in thunderstorms and in the south and eastern parts of the region. Water lying in fields is starting to cause crop to yellow and impact growth.
Cereal crops continue to progress under good growing conditions. Many earlier seeded fields are done flowering and have received a fungicide application. Later seeded fields are starting to head. Winter wheat and fall rye are in the head filling stage. Crop appears to be average to above average.
Canola is in various stages throughout the region with early seeded canola in full bloom and has had fungicide applied for sclerotina. Later seeded canola is starting to bolt. Crop is in good to excellent condition.
Soybeans are in the fourth to fifth trifoliate stage and are doing well. Some fields have plants that are yellowing due to moisture stress. Flax is in early flower stage and producers are scouting for fungicide application. Sunflowers and corn are in the vegetative stages and is progressing well in the warm, humid conditions.
Hay yields are average to above average with some harvesting issues due to wet conditions; some producers are opting to silage. Alfalfa weevil is causing damage in some areas. Pastures are rated in good condition with the recent rainfall. Dugouts are 90% full.

Northwest Region

There was rainfall throughout the Northwest Region over the weekend, with amounts ranging from 10 mm in The Pas, up to 48 mm in parts of the Roblin area and from 17 to 100 mm in the Swan River Valley. There was severe winds and heavy rain early Monday in the Swan River area but possible impact on crops are not yet known.
For the most part, crops throughout the region are advancing nicely and are in good to excellent condition, with the exception of those crops recovering from excessive moisture and recent rainfall events. With regards to crop stage of growth, regionally, 20% of the wheat is elongating and 80% is heading. Canola growth has progressed rapidly over the past week although growth stage is, to some extent, variable within the same areas. Approximately 10% of the later seeded canola is at the rosette stage, 40% of the canola in the region is bolting and 50% of the canola is flowering. Approximately 20% of the field peas are in the vegetative stage of growth and 80% are blooming. Most of the soybeans are in the vegetative stage of growth with some fields in flower.
Herbicide treatments are generally complete throughout the region. Fungicide applications to spring wheat and canola fields are being made where disease risk exists. Reports of insect and disease damage are limited.
Significant rainfall this past week slowed haying progress down. Many producers are waiting prior to cutting and those fields already cut have not been dry enough to bale with the frequent rains. Warm, dry weather is needed this week to dry up fields. In areas where showers were more scattered around Ste. Rose and McCreary, some fields were dry enough for baling. Silaging of alfalfa grass fields continues as well. Pasture growth is abundant with adequate water for livestock.

Central Region

Temperatures were variable this past week in the Central Region, but good crop growth was still seen. There was lower accumulation of rain for much of the region, but impact of previous heavy rains continues to be an issue. Showers continue to interfere with pesticide applications and haying operations, but some weather breaks allowed for many acres to see aerial fungicide applications. Highest amounts of rainfall in the region: Somerset 20 mm; Manitou 30 mm; and Notre Dame reported up to 100 mm. Scattered reports of hail continue, with some crop damage reported in the Somerset, Swan Lake and Notre Dame areas in Wednesday’s storm. Some areas saw additional accumulations of up to 15 mm on the weekend. Hail claims continue to be made for damage done in earlier storms.
Excess moisture continues to be the concern; more advanced crops have been better able to handle higher rainfall amounts, although stand thinning is evident in those crops as well. Yellowing of crop due to excess moisture is evident. Standing water is still prevalent in lower spots of fields. Ruts are visible in fields where herbicide applications had to be made in less than perfect conditions; these will present challenges at harvest. Ground rigs are struggling to make fungicide applications as fields are soft.
Cereals are growing rapidly and stem elongation has begun in all of the later seeded fields. Heading stage is reached in all spring cereals, dependent on seeding date. Fungicide applications continue, both to flag leaf and to headed wheat. Timing for fusarium head blight is a challenge due to uneven crop stages. Lodging is reported in some of the earliest seeded fields; a result of high winds and thunderstorm activity. The most advanced wheat fields have fully formed kernels.
The later seeded canola is growing rapidly, and most acres are bolting to early flower stages. Podding is seen in the most advanced fields. Fungicide applications continue as the crop comes into the correct stage. Where stands are not as good, particularly due to excess moisture and/or earlier frost injury, fungicide applications are not planned.
Corn is growing rapidly. Uniformity of stand is inconsistent in many fields. Soybeans are as advanced as the seventh trifoliate stage, depending on seeding date. Iron chlorois deficiency is noticeable in a number of fields, and some varietal differences are noted. Nodulation appears to be successful and nitrogen fixation has begun. Flowering has started. Second herbicide applications continue where timing and weed pressure warrant.
Flowering in peas continues and podding has begun. Stands look good where excess moisture is not an issue. Plants in low areas are starting to die back; more losses will be seen as soils dry due to poor/damaged roots.
Fall rye and winter wheat are progressing well. Fields are in good to excellent condition as they continue to mature. Fall rye harvest is expected to begin in the next two weeks.
Diamondback moth trapping is now complete; numbers to date are generally low to moderate for the region. Bertha armyworm trap numbers are low to moderate. Some minor grasshopper feeding reported. Pea aphids are being found during scouting, but numbers are below threshold. Monitoring continues in headed cereals. Although higher numbers of English grain aphid and bird-cherry oat aphid have been seen in some crop canopies since early May, presence of beneficial predators are keeping numbers below threshold.
Forages are growing quickly. Alfalfa is blooming and tame grasses are heading out. Haying continues; some are ensiling due to the frequent rains. The moisture has generally been beneficial to the hay and pasture, although some fields are quite wet. Average yields expected for first cut hay: alfalfa 1.5 to 2 tons per acre; grass/alfalfa 1.75 tons per acre; other tame hay 1.5 tons per acre. Up to 40% of cutting and baling operations were not done last week due to rain events, and putting up dry hay continues to be a significant challenge. Livestock water supply is adequate.

Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulations in the Eastern Region were minimal over the past week. Field operations resumed as good drying weather prevailed. In northern districts, where more rain has fallen in past weeks, fields have also dried significantly and field operations resumed. However, producers were making ruts as conditions were still wet but passable. Loss of yield potential due to excess moisture continues to occur across the Eastern Region.
Winter cereals range from milk stage to early dough stage. Spring cereals range from head emergence to flowering. Canola development ranges from early to full flowering. Field peas are flowering. Most soybeans range from the third to sixth trifoliate leaf stage; plants have begun to flower. The yellowing in soybeans, attributed to excess moisture, iron deficiency chlorosis and transitional N deficiency symptoms, has begun to dissipate. Corn ranges from V12 to V13 and is looking very good.
First pass herbicide applications are complete in the Eastern Region. Second pass of glyphosate in soybeans will continue in northern districts where possible. Fungicide applications targeted at fusarium head blight suppression in spring cereals will wrap up later this week. Fungicide applications on canola are on-going. Up to 25% of planned fungicide applications may be cancelled in northern districts because of the loss in yield potential caused by the recent excessive rainfall.
Across the region, the majority of hay land and pasture land is rated in good condition. Hay harvest continues, with most of the hay harvested as silage with very little as dry hay due to the wet conditions. First cut haying progress is reported as 15% baled or silaged with an additional 10% cut and the remainder of the crop still standing. Quality is rated as mostly good with alfalfa hay yielding 2 tons per acre and grass/alfalfa hay yielding 1.75 tons per acre. Pastures are in good shape with livestock grazing high spots in the fields as the low spots are saturated. Availability of livestock water is adequate.

Interlake Region

Warm temperatures and scattered showers were experienced throughout the Interlake Region last week. Rainfall amounts ranged from 5 to 35 mm. The majority of the week’s precipitation came on Sunday when a storm system moved in from the south. Arborg and Inwood received the highest amounts ranging from 20 to 35 mm while the rest of the Interlake Region received 5 to 15 mm. Parts of the South Interlake are still dealing with moisture issues from previous week’s rainfall.
Spraying continues as producers have started applying fungicides to spring wheat fields to suppress fusarium head blight. Spring cereals range from four to six leaf stage to heading. Some cereals planted for greenfeed in the North Interlake are at the two to four leaf stage. Winter wheat fields have finished flowering and are mostly in the milk stage. Canola staging varies from seedling to 30 to 40% flowering. With ample moisture and warm temperatures soybeans and corn have developed rapidly. Corn staging ranges from V10 to V12. Soybeans are starting to yellow in areas due to moisture and iron chlorosis deficiency. Soybean staging varies from third to fifth trifoliate stage, and fields that were seeded later are at first to second trifoliate stage.
Majority of timothy seed fields have flowered. Alfalfa seed fields continue to flower as producers should complete bee release this week. Spraying fungicides on crops in areas of South and North Interlake is occurring by airplane to avoid making ruts in fields. Hopefully, with warm temperatures and dry conditions producers should be able to get back into fields mid-week. In some fields, producers are considering not spraying fungicides due to the poor crop conditions.
Haying has been hampered by periodic rains preventing hay from drying and curing. Alfalfa weevil pressure continues in some fields, and maturity of alfalfa is reducing hay quality. Native and grass hay yields continue to increase. Grasshopper damage so far is minimal. Pastures are in good condition.