Crop Report: Issue 11, July 11, 2016

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Areas of Manitoba saw thunderstorm activity resulting in heavy rainfall, strong winds and hail. Assessments of crop damage due to hail is continuing. Crop lodging also occurred, particularly in spring and winter cereal crops.
  • Fungicide applications continue in many crop types to manage disease risk.
  • Livestock producers continue to make slow progress with first cut haying operations as rain showers and high humidity are causing challenges.
 

Southwest Region 

In the Southwest Region, most areas reported rainfall amounts varying from 20 to 80 mm over the past week. Strong winds caused damage in several areas, mostly to buildings, but lodging is reported in some early seeded cereal crops. Hail occurred in several areas with severe to minor damage; assessments are continuing. Symptoms of excess moisture are starting to appear in crops.
 
Winter wheat and fall rye are in the grain filling stages and are starting to turn. Some winter wheat acres are damaged from recent hail. Most spring cereal crops are heading and starting to fill; crop looks to be average to above average. Early seeded canola is in the full bloom stage and early podding. Later seeded canola is in the 30% bloom stage. Several areas in the region are reporting hail damage in canola. Soybeans are starting to flower with some fields starting to show water stress. Most flax fields are in the full bloom stage. Sunflowers are in the early bud stage. Corn continues to develop under good growing conditions. Peas continue to flower and are starting to fill; producers are controlling aphids where necessary.
 
Bertha armyworm numbers are increasing but are still under the threshold level. Alfalfa weevil is causing some damage.
 
Rainfall and high humidity is making it difficult to cut, dry and bale hay. Several producers have completed first cut haying operations as silage or are wrapping bales. Pastures are doing well with the moisture. Dugouts are 100% full.
 

Northwest Region

There was thunderstorm activity throughout most of the Northwest Region over the past week with extreme variation in total rainfall amounts. Reported rainfall amounts range from as little as 0 to 3 mm in the Roblin area to over 100 mm in The Pas. Soil conditions throughout the region are also variable, ranging from adequate in many parts to excessive in some parts of Swan Valley, The Pas and south of Ste Rose. Some crops in these areas are beginning to show effects of excess moisture with low spots drowned out and crop yellowing occurring. Generally, most field crops throughout the region continue to advance nicely and are in good to excellent condition, with the exception of those crops in localized areas struggling to recover from excessive moisture.
 
With regards to crop staging, most wheat is headed and in or past the flowering stage. Canola progressed rapidly over the week. Approximately 10% of the canola in the region is bolting and 90% of the canola is flowering. Pods have begun to develop. Field peas are also advancing rapidly. Reports indicate about 50% of the field peas acres are blooming and 50% are beginning to develop pods. Sixty percent of the soybeans are in the vegetative stage of growth with about 40% in flower.
 
Fungicide applications to canola crops for the prevention of disease are nearing completion. Reports of insect and disease damage continue to be minimal.
 
Producers are continuing to put up first cut hay; however, baling progress is slow due to frequent rains and high humidity. Putting up dry hay is a challenge, thus some fields have been baled at higher moistures then recommended. Hay quality is deteriorating in fields that are cut and where swaths have been rained on several times. Forage fields are maturing and delayed harvest will also impact quality. More producers are considering harvesting alfalfa grass fields as silage. First cut silage yields varying from 2.5 tons per acre on poor stands to as high as 7.5 tons per acre on newly seeded fields. Pastures are responding well to frequent rainfalls and are in good condition. Livestock water supply is adequate. 
 

Central Region

In the Central Region, temperatures remain variable with good crop growth on average. Showers, thundershowers and high humidity continue to interfere with pesticide applications and haying operations. Strong winds early last week resulted in some lodging in cereal crops, and downed trees. Rainfall accumulations vary, but most of the region received 15 to 25 mm of rainfall through the week. Higher amounts were recorded along the US border, extending east of the Red River, with amounts ranging from 50 mm and higher. Clearwater reported 80 mm. There are reports of hail and associated damage throughout the region. Standing water is still evident in many fields. Ruts made during herbicide and fungicide applications will present challenges at harvest. The majority of fungicide applications are being applied by air.
 
Cereals are growing rapidly. Heading stage is reached in all spring cereals. Fungicide applications continue for both leaf diseases and fusarium head blight. Lodging is reported in some of the earliest seeded fields, a result of high winds and thunderstorm activity. The most advanced wheat fields have fully formed kernels. Some plants are starting to die back due to root rots; a result of saturated soil conditions. Smut is reported in barley.
 
Later seeded canola is growing rapidly and most acres are in early flower. Podding is seen in the most advanced fields. Fungicide applications continue as the crop comes into the correct stage. Where stands are not as good, particularly due to excess moisture and/or earlier frost injury, fungicide applications are not planned.
 
Corn is growing rapidly. Uniformity of stand is inconsistent in many fields. Crop is as advanced as early tassel. Soybeans are as advanced as the R1 to R2 stage, with a few fields close to R3. Bacterial blight is evident in a number of fields. The last of the second herbicide applications continue where timing and weed pressure warrant, and will wrap up shortly.
 
Flowering in peas continues and podding has begun. Stands look good where excess moisture is not an issue. Plants in low areas are starting to die back; more losses are expected due to poor/damaged roots. Growers are scouting field peas for pea aphids, as some fields have reached the threshold level. Close evaluation is warranted, as heavy rains will knock down the aphids and beneficial predators are keeping numbers in check in many fields. Fungicide applications are being made to some fields. Edible beans are flowering, and fungicide applications have begun in the early types. Flax continues to flower and boll formation has begun. Sunflowers are in the R1 to R3 stages.
 
Fall rye and winter wheat are progressing well. Fields are in good to excellent condition as they continue to mature. Fall rye harvest is expected to begin in the next two weeks.
 
Some minor grasshopper feeding is reported. Monitoring continues in headed cereals. Although higher numbers of English grain aphid and bird-cherry oat aphid have been seen in some crop canopies since early May, presence of beneficial predators have kept numbers below threshold. In the Winkler area, a few pockets of cereal armyworm have reached sufficient levels to require treatment.
 
Forages are growing quickly. Alfalfa is blooming and tame grasses are headed. Haying continues; some producers are ensiling due to the frequent rains. Average yields expected for first cut hay: alfalfa 1.5 to 2 tons per acre; grass/alfalfa 1.75 tons per acre; other tame hay is 1.5 tons per acre. Up to 40% of cutting and baling was not done last week due to regular rain events, and putting up dry hay continues to be a significant challenge. Some second cut has begun. Pastures are in good condition; grass is plentiful. Livestock water supply is adequate.  
 

Eastern Region

Rainfall accumulations in the Eastern Region varied from 8 to 50 mm, with higher precipitation levels occurring in central and southern districts. Producers made progress with field operations, particularly spraying with ground rigs or planes. Loss of yield potential due to excess moisture continues to occur across the Eastern Region. Some standing water in fields is evident. Isolated but intense hailstorms occurred both north and south of Beausejour early last week and caused crop damage. Topsoil moisture conditions on cropland were rated from adequate to surplus across the Eastern Region with surplus conditions noted in northern and southern districts.
 
Winter cereals are in the dough stage. Some lodging is noted due to recent heavy rains and strong winds. Spring cereals range from late flowering to milk stage. Canola ranges from late flowering to pod fill. Field peas are flowering and pod filling. Soybeans are flowering. The yellowing in soybeans, attributed to excess moisture, iron deficiency chlorosis and transitional nitrogen deficiency symptoms, continue to dissipate. Sunflowers are in early bud development and corn ranges from V12 to V13 with tassels almost ready to emerge.
 
Herbicide applications are complete. Fungicide applications in spring cereals and canola are also complete with only a few late seeded cereal fields. Approximately 15% of planned fungicide applications were cancelled in northern districts of the region because of reduced yield potential due to excessive rainfall.
 
Across the region, the majority of hay land and pastures is rated in good condition. Hay season is just starting with progress estimated at 15% complete. Another 10% of acres are cut, with the remainder still standing. Quality is mostly rated as good with alfalfa hay yielding 2 tons per acre and grass/alfalfa hay yielding 1.75 tons per acre. Very few producers have started second cut. Wet weather and field conditions have made haying a challenge for many producers. Hay crops are also maturing, resulting in a decrease in quality. Pastures are in good condition. Availability of livestock water is adequate.
 

Interlake Region

Warm temperatures and scattered showers over the past week provided producers a brief period of time to catch up on spraying in the Interlake Region. Rainfall amounts ranged from 5 to 15 mm. In some isolated areas however, rainfall amounts of greater than 20 mm were reported, along with strong winds and hail. Isolated hail and heavy rainfall were also reported from last week’s rainfall events. No reports to date on the severity of crop damage in the fields.
 
Spraying is on-going with fungicide applications in canola and spring cereal crops. Majority of herbicide applications are complete. Earlier seeded spring cereals are finished flowering. Later seeded fields are starting to reach the proper crop staging and will be sprayed in the days to come. Winter wheat staging ranges from milk to soft dough. Soybeans vary from second to fourth trifoliate stage, up to flowering. Corn staging ranges from V10 to V12 and most fields are rated as good. Canola staging varies from two to three leaf stage, to the earlier seeded fields that are starting in pod. Peas continue to flower and have started to pod. Excess moisture is still an issue for many crops throughout the Interlake Region, particularly in the southern areas. Aerial applicators are busy as producers opt for aerial application of fungicides due to wet field conditions.
 
Haying operations are hampered by periodic rains preventing hay from drying and curing. Alfalfa weevil continues to cause damage in some fields, and maturity of the alfalfa crop is reducing hay quality. Second growth of alfalfa is good and is minimally affected by alfalfa weevil damage. Native and grass hay yields continue to increase. Grasshopper damage to date is minimal. Pastures are in good condition. Adequate water is available for livestock consumption.