Crop Report: Issue 6, June 5, 2017

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Hot dry weather conditions prevailed during the week with shower activity reported in most regions bringing very little precipitation. An isolated storm event in the South Central part of the province brought and isolated rainfall of up to 75 mm. Most areas indicate that a moderate rainfall would be beneficial to improve topsoil moisture conditions.
  • Strong southerly winds during the week caused some soil drifting and blowing on fields with poor crop residue cover or growth.
  • Seeding operations are almost done in the province with about 95 % completed. The North West region reports delayed seeding in the The Pas area from earlier heavy rains.
  • Annual crops are developing and growing well with the warmer weather conditions. Herbicide applications are progressing as crops are in the proper stage but challenging due to the windy conditions.
  • Flea beetle feeding on canola has been reported with some control measures applied where necessary. Diamondback moth monitoring using pheromone attractants show low counts to date.
  • Hay and pastures are growing but could use a good rain. Haying is expected to start this week for high quality hay. Livestock water supplies are considered adequate.
     
     

    Southwest Region

    There was little to no precipitation over the past week. Some isolated thunderstorms over the weekend with no major amounts reported. Winds continue to dry out soil surface leading to poorer germination and emergence of later seeded crops. Much of the seed in those fields is sitting in dry topsoil. Soil temperatures increased last week due to a short, late week heat wave.
Most farmers are hoping for a decent rain to soften packed seeds and provide adequate moisture for germinating canola and later seeded crops.
 
Overall seeding is 95 to 97% complete. With the dry weather most producers completed seeding except for isolated wetter fields and some silage plantings.
 
Winter wheat is in the flag leaf to early heading stage and most fall rye fields are heading. Rainfall is needed to help maintain the yield potential.

 

Early seeded cereal crops are in the 3 to 4 leaf stage with producers starting to apply weed control measures. Cereal growth is slow due to the lack of moisture now impacting more fields.
 
Early seeded canola is at the 2 to 3 leaf stage and producers are completing their first pass of weed control products.
 
Field peas are growing well and are in the 2 to 3 leaf stage.
 
Early planted soybeans have emerged and entered the unifoliate stage. Later planted soybeans are germinating and emergence is uneven.
 
Corn and sunflower growth are slow. Corn is in the 2 to 3 leaf stage and most sunflower fields have good emergence.

 

Flea beetles are a major issue in canola fields but their density remains below threshold levels. Diamond back moth counts remain at low levels in the area.
 
Forecasted rain on Friday missed most of the area. Most producers now have cattle on summer pastures.
 

Northwest Region

Warmer temperatures throughout the Northwest region and strong winds contributed to dry down soil surfaces and allowed seeding operations to progress through the week. Rainfall was limited to light scattered showers in the Dauphin area with 13 mm of rain received in The Pas. Soil moisture conditions are extremely variable with some soils in the Roblin area rated dry, while soil moisture conditions are considered excessive in the northern part of the region as in localized parts of the Dauphin area.

 
Overall seeding progress in the Northwest Region is estimated to be 90% complete with the exception of The Pas where seeding is less than 5% complete. In the region, 95% of the wheat crop is seeded and 85% is emerging. Eighty to one hundred percent of the canola crop is seeded with approximately 75% of the crop nicely emerged. Approximately 95% of the soybeans are seeded and are emerging; approximately 80% of field peas and lentils are planted and emerging. Winter cereals in the Roblin area are near the flagleaf stage.
 
Strong winds are a challenge for herbicide applications however operations have started and will continue as field conditions allow and as crops reach the proper stage. There are reports of spraying for flea beetle damage in some canola fields in the Swan River Valley. Injury caused is considered minimal in many cases. Diamondback moth monitoring trap counts remain low.
 
Forage growth improved this past week with the warmer temperatures. Some areas are looking for rainfall for continued growth in both annual and perennial forages, while other areas need dry weather conditions to improve pasture growth. Cattle continue to be moved out to pasture.
 

Central Region

Temperatures reached 30 to 35°C on Friday, allowing for rapid crop growth. Seeding is essentially complete, with only a few fields left to be planted in areas that were wetter. The region received some rainfall this past week, with amounts received ranging from 5 to 10 mm. Cartwright and Glenboro areas received upwards of 25 to 30 mm; Macgregor reported 25 to 60 mm; an area by Belmont reported a downpour of 75 mm. Some hail was reported; damage is localized and not considered severe at this stage. Dry topsoil conditions prevail in lighter textured soils in the southwest part of the region and germination is impacted as a result. Strong southerly winds caused soil blowing on fields with poor crop residue cover. Topsoil moisture conditions are just adequate for seed germination in lighter soil types. Most areas could use a good rain to improve topsoil moisture for germination and growth. There is adequate subsoil moisture to sustain crop growth.

 
A few fields of canola were reseeded due to poor emergence and flea beetle damage.
 
Uneven germination is seen in fields with poorer seedbed conditions. A moderate rainfall event would be beneficial to stimulate growth in the wheel tracks of field implements.
 
The majority of cereals are emerged and growing well. Most cereal crops range from three to four leaf stage to as much as 5 to 6 leaf and tillering.
 
Earlier cooler weather conditions and dry top soils delayed canola emergence and growth allowing for flea beetle injury to occur. Insecticide applications are being made to headlands, and in a few cases, entire fields. Canola fields are in the cotyledon to 4 leaf stage in eastern areas where the crop has been in the ground the longest; some fields are close to cabbaging. Many fields, particularly the earliest seeded canola, are stagey due to uneven emergence.
 
Diamondback moths are monitored weekly; trap count numbers are low to date.
 
Corn fields are in the 1 to 3 leaf stage and have been growing slowly due to the cooler temperatures. The warm weather conditions in the last few days have stimulated crop growth. Sunflowers and flax are emerging; seed rows are evident. Soybeans are germinating to unifoliate stage, with some fields in the first trifoliate. Field peas are growing well, up to the 6 node stage and further. All but the last few fields of edible beans are seeded.
 
Winterkill is a concern in some winter wheat and perennial ryegrass fields in the eastern parts of the region, with the majority of acres re-seeded as a result. Fields in western areas with good survival are growing and tillering well; stem elongation is evident and fall rye fields are heading out.
 
Post-emergent herbicide applications continue to be a challenge due to the windy conditions. There is a lot of both broadleaf and grass weed pressure in many fields, especially where early application attempts were thwarted by adverse weather conditions. Dandelions, Canada thistle, wild buckwheat and smartweed are the predominant weeds in eastern areas. Wild oats seem to be more of an issue in western parts of the region. Barnyard grass is evident in low areas, and where crops were poor last year due to excess moisture. Purslane speedwell, an indicator of wet soil conditions the previous season, has been found in a number of fields in the eastern part of the region.
 
The majority of wheat acres in the east are sprayed with herbicides, followed closely by canola acres. First pass in soybeans is underway, especially in fields that didn’t receive a pre-seed or pre-emergent herbicide application.
 
Some top dress nitrogen applications are being made.
 
Pasture conditions are rated as fair; but range from poor to good. Excess moisture is still a concern for some pastures and hay fields; yet many need a good rain. Forage growth is progressing, grasses are heading out. Alfalfa in the northwest part of the region has suffered winterkill and fields have uneven growth. The hay crop looks below normal at this time due to winter injury and dry weather conditions. Haying will start in the next week. Pasture growth is just becoming adequate to turn cattle out to graze. Livestock water supply is adequate.

 

Eastern Region

Hot, dry and often windy weather prevailed this past week. Forecasted rainfall events have not materialized and have been a disappointment. Precipitation amounts across the eastern region this past week ranged from 2 to 10 mm. The warm, windy weather combined with little precipitation has affected topsoil moisture conditions on cropland across the region and are rated as 90% adequate to 10% short. Soil moisture conditions of hay and pasture land are rated at 90% adequate to 10% short.

 
Everyone would like to see a meaningful rainfall event to stimulate crop growth. Some late seeded crops and especially fields that required intense seedbed preparation (terminated fall seeded crops or failed haystands) really need rain to aid in crop germination and emergence. Even earlier seeded fields tend to have uneven crop stands and stage due to varying seed depth at the time of seeding. Deeper placed seeds germinated and grew earlier than in areas of shallower seeding. The emerged crops are growing quickly.
 
Seeding is all but complete with the occasional seeding unit still out over the weekend. Most late seeding at this point is due to delayed decisions on terminating fall seeded cereals or hayfields.
 
Pre-emergent herbicide applications are pretty much done. Post-emergent applications will get a big push this week. Windy conditions frustrated producers and herbicide applications opportunities are been very limited. Some crops are very uneven in development stages leading to concerns about application timing when spraying as early as possible. Weed emergence has been spotty and uneven in some fields leading to concerns of later weed flushes. Cereals, canola, soybeans and corn are where most of the spraying has occurred. Some soybean fields saw very early post-emergent applications because of significant weed pressure and advanced weed stage. Most growers would welcome moderate rainfall to stimulate weed growth as well as to ensure activation of some soil applied products.
 
Some cutworm damage reported in spring wheat, canola, corn and sunflowers. The damage is not considered widespread, there have been no report of post-emergent spraying take place. Flea beetle damage has been observed in canola, but we have not had reports of post-emergent spraying take place. Overall spring seeded crops look pretty good but a moderate rain would be beneficial at this time. Cereals are in the 1 to 3 leaf stage, soybeans are emerging to cotyledon to very early V1 stage. Canola is in the cotyledon to 3 to 4 leaf stage depending on when it was seeded. Sunflower is at the cotyledon to V2 stage. Corn is at the V2 to V3 stage.
 
Livestock are on pasture with producers starting to rotate between paddocks. There are a couple of hay fields that were cut at the end of the week. Dairy producers are just getting started to cut alfalfa fields, while beef producers will be waiting another week or two to start haying. Hay fields and pasture are rated as 80% good to 20% fair condition. Availability of livestock water is rated as adequate.
 

Interlake Region

This past week, warm temperatures and scattered rainfall throughout the region resulted in rapid growth and development of crops. Rainfall varied from 0.8 to 19 mm, and temperatures was recorded as high as 34.8oC.

 
In the south Interlake cereals are in the 3 to 5 leaf stage and tillering. The first round of herbicide spraying is in full swing and about a quarter to a third complete. There is a lot of wild oat pressure due to the cool spring weather conditions. Canola is in the cotyledon to 4 leaf stage. There has been some spraying for flea beetles which have emerged during this last warm spell. Soybeans vary in development from emergence to second trifoliate stage. Corn varies from 2 to 4 leaf stage. Soil moisture conditions are considered good in the south Interlake. Topsoil moisture is considered somewhat dry and could use a moderate rain at this time.
 
Strong winds this past week and dry soil surfaces with little crop cover resulted in soil erosion on some fields in the region exposing some germinating seed. Rain later in the week helped to reduce the blowing of soils.
 
Crops in the north Interlake are lagging 1 to 2 weeks behind in the south Interlake. Cereals are emerging to 3 leaf stage, canola is emerging to 2 leaf stage and soybeans are emerging to the first trifoliate. Fall rye and winter wheat crops are in flag leaf stage and will emerge from the boot soon. Soil moisture conditions range from dry to very dry in the top 7.5 cm. There is still a small amount of seeding to do in fields with low areas and fields with poor/slow drainage.
 
Warm temperatures this past week stimulated hay and pasture forage growth. Alfalfa is mostly in the late bud stage, however height varies considerably from 20 to 50 cm due to challenging winter and spring weather conditions.
 
Pastures are rated in fair to good condition.
 
There is adequate water for livestock to drink. Most cattle are on summer pastures.