Crop Report: Issue 7, June 12, 2017

 
 

Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Many areas of Manitoba received precipitation, although amounts varied considerably throughout the province. Soil conditions remain dry in many regions.
  • Severe thunderstorm activity with high rainfall, hail and strong winds impacted crops and infrastructure in the Killarney, Pilot Mound, and Crystal City areas.
  • Seeding operations are wrapping up with an estimated 95 to 100% of acres seeded in most of the province. An exception is The Pas where wet conditions have resulted in less than 15% of seeding being completed.
  • Weed control is underway and most crops have had one herbicide application at this time. High winds in many regions have restricted herbicide applications to early morning and later in the evening.
  • Dairy producers are starting first cut haying operations.

 

Southwest Region 

Above normal temperatures have lead to good growing conditions. Much of the region received rain over the weekend, with most of the rain falling south of Highway 1. Areas south of Highway 1 received 15 to 35 mm while areas north of Hamiota to Riding Mountain National Park received 2 to 5 mm. Miniota, Russell, Rossburn, Shoal Lake, Erickson, and Rapid City are in need of rain and crops are struggling in areas which did not receive enough moisture. There are reports of wind damage to infrastructure and trees in the Killarney area. Wind speeds reached 146 km per hour in some areas.

Seeding is 95 to 100% complete in most of the region.

Weather conditions have been favourable for post emergent herbicide application. 40 to 50% of weed control measures have been completed in the region.

Winter cereals have entered the reproductive stage with most of the fall rye and 50 to 60% of winter wheat heading. Spring wheat fields are doing well, and most have had herbicides applied.

Most early seeded canola is at 3 to 4 leaf or rosette stage. Some early seeded canola has been sprayed for flea beetle control. Late seeded fields will benefit from the recent rain as most seeding was done in dry seedbed conditions. Soybean crops are responding well to the warm weather and will benefit from the timely moisture. Emergence is even in the majority of fields. Most crops are at 1 to 2 trifoliate stage and some had their first application of herbicide.

The majority of sunflower crops are at the four leaf stage. There are reports of cutworm activity in sunflowers. Corn is at the 1 to 3 leaf stage.

Bertha army worm traps are up in the region and Diamond back moth counts continue to be relatively low.

Recent rainfall in the southwest will help pastures and hay land. Some dairy producers in the Virden and Miniota areas have taken the first cut of alfalfa. Yields are reported to be below average. Most cattle are on pasture.

 

 

Northwest Region

Warmer temperatures and strong winds occurred throughout the Northwest region this week. The weekend brought rainfall events for some of the region. Precipitation was limited to light scattered trace amounts in the Dauphin area, 5 to 18 mm throughout the Swan River area and 35 mm of rain in The Pas. Soil moisture conditions are extremely variable. The Roblin area has some very dry soils which are affecting germination and crop emergence. The southern part of Swan River is also dry. Soil moisture conditions are considered excessive in the northern part of the region and in localized parts of the Dauphin area.
 
Seeding progress in the Northwest Region is estimated to be 90 to 100% complete with the exception of The Pas where, due to excess moisture, seeding is less than 15% complete. In the region, 95% of wheat is seeded with 50% in the seedling stage. Almost 100% of canola is seeded with approximately 50% of the crop in the seedling stage. Seeding of soybeans is complete with 75% of the crop in the vegetative stage; field peas and lentils are planted and generally in the vegetative stage. Winter cereals in the Roblin area are near the flag leaf stage.
Strong winds and rainfall were a challenge for herbicide applications however operations have started and will continue as field conditions allow and as crops reach the proper stage. There are reports of spraying for cutworms in the Swan River area with some reseeding taking place. Diamondback moth monitoring trap counts remain low.
 
Last week’s warmer temperatures advanced forages, particularly in areas that received rainfall. Bromegrass is heading out and alfalfa is approaching the early bud stage. Hay growth is variable from field to field, with fields cut or grazed late in the fall showing slow growth. Dugout levels are adequate.

 

 

Central Region

 

Above seasonal temperatures were seen for much of the week. High temperatures, combined with winds, have dried out the topsoil, although most areas report good subsoil moisture. The region received some rainfall this past week, with most areas receiving 5 to 15 mm. Many areas could use additional rains to improve topsoil moisture for germination and growth. Areas including Notre Dame, St. Jean Baptiste, Lowe Farm, and Winkler saw amounts of 20 to 25 mm. Some western areas saw severe thunder shower activity with rainfall amounts of 20 to 60 mm, accompanied by hail and strong winds; severely impacting crops and infrastructure in some cases. The most severely affected area was near Pilot Mound and Crystal City. The Somerset area received the highest amounts of precipitation; up to 60 mm fell in a few hours Friday night. Numerous fields in Crystal City and west are damaged and are being assessed to determine if reseeding is necessary. An added concern is the impending seeding deadline for insurance coverage.
 
Strong winds continue to cause soil blowing on lighter textured fields with poor crop residue cover. Uneven germination was seen in fields with poor seedbed conditions.
 
Dry conditions allowed for most producers to keep up with herbicide applications, although high winds have often limited spraying to early morning and later evening. Most cereals and canola fields have had one pass of herbicide.
 
The majority of cereals are growing well, with most cereal crops at the 4 to 6 leaf stage and tillering. Some cereals are starting to elongate.
 
Canola is just germinating in some fields, with most in the 4 leaf to rosette stage. A few early fields are starting to bolt. Many fields, particularly the earliest seeded canola, are at various stages due to uneven emergence. Slow emergence and growth due to cooler temperatures and dry soils have allowed for flea beetle injury to occur, but most fields have advanced to growth stages that are no longer susceptible to significant injury. Later seeded fields are advancing rapidly and are at minimal risk.
 
Diamondback moth numbers are low.
 
Corn fields continue to advance with warmer temperatures. Most fields received a first herbicide application, and second applications will start this week, weather permitting. Sunflowers, flax and peas are growing well. Soybeans range from just emerging to the first trifoliate stage, with some fields showing the second trifoliate. Majority of fields have had a herbicide application, with a second pass in some areas. Post emergent rolling has been done in some fields. Growers are reminded that the best staging is first trifoliate, and to undertake rolling operations in warm afternoons; cool mornings will result in too much breakage.
 
Herbicide applications are underway in edible bean fields. Stand counts in pintos are on the lower side, ranging from45,000 to 50,000 plants per acre; a result of seeding depth and seed quality issues. Some reports of cutworm feeding, but not of significant damage.
 
Fall seeded crops in western areas with good survival are growing well; fall rye and winter wheat are heading out where most advanced.
 
Weed growth has been somewhat limited by lack of rainfall, but moisture will bring new flushes. Perennial weeds are drawing on moisture reserves and are doing well; flowering leafy spurge is evident throughout the region.
 
Pasture conditions are rated as fair but range from poor to good. Grasses are heading out, and alfalfa is starting to bloom. The hay crop yield potential looks to be lower than normal, due to winter injury and drier conditions. Dairy producers have started haying, and more beef producers will start this week as weather conditions allow. Livestock water supply is adequate.
 

 

Eastern Region

Hot, dry, and often windy weather prevailed again for most of the week across most of the Eastern region with some precipitation falling over the weekend. Precipitation amounts across the eastern region varied greatly ranging from 2 to 30 mm. Additional rain across the region would help to even crops out, especially in areas that did not see much rain. Soil moisture conditions on cropland across the region and were rated as 85% adequate to 15% short. Soil moisture conditions of hay and pasture land were rated at 90% adequate to 10% short.

Pre-emergent spray applications are completed. First pass of post-emergent herbicides is 80% complete on cereals, 40% complete on canola, 80% complete on soybeans, 100% complete on corn and only about 15% complete for sunflower. Windy conditions resulted in herbicides being applied early in the morning and late in the evening. Most of the focus has been on cereals and soybeans with the focus shifting to canola. Some concerns noted with the sparse development of seedling weeds due to surface dryness and the activation of residual products to control flushing weeds. Both of these issues would be assisted by significant rainfall. Some producers are anticipating grasshopper issues if current weather conditions persist. A few reports of cutworm damage in soybeans with a very limited amount of spraying going on to control cutworms. Flea beetle damage was observed in canola, but instances of economic damage are infrequent with a very limited amount of spraying going on. Overall, spring seeded crops look good but rain would be ideal.
 
Spring cereals are in the 5 to 6 leaf stage with 2 to 3 tillers. Soybeans are mostly in unifolate to first trifoliate with a limited amount of late seeded crop in emerging to cotyledon stage.
 
Crown nodulation has been noted in soybeans. Canola is at 3 to 4 leaf to rosette with a limited amount of late seeding crop in emerging to cotyledon. Late seeded canola that was floated on and harrowed is doing the poorest with very uneven emergence resulting in a stagy crop.
 
Sunflowers are in the two to four leaf stage. Corn is in the five to six leaf stage. Agronomists have noted that overall seedling health has been good to excellent and seed and seedling mortality has been lower than in past years. Sub surface soil moisture levels remain good and crop that emerged well this spring has become well rooted in this moisture. Plant development is proceeding at a rapid pace.
 
Livestock are on pasture with producers starting to rotate pastures. Dairy producers have been cutting alfalfa and putting up silage, beef producers are talking about starting haying operations later this week. Hay fields and pasture are in 80% good to 20% fair condition. Availability of livestock water was rated as adequate.
 

 

Interlake Region

Precipitation amounts range from 1.5 to 8.3 mm throughout the region. There is decent subsoil moisture, however topsoil moisture is deficient in some areas, and a general one inch rain would be welcome. There is some staginess evident in crops, especially in wheel tracks, due to uneven germination and dry seedbeds.
 
In the south Interlake most cereals are 4 to 6 leaf with 1 to 3 tillers. Canola varies considerably, but is generally around the 3 to 6 leaf stage with some fields starting to cabbage out. A few fields have been sprayed for flea beetles. Soybeans are at the 1 to 2 trifoliate stage and corn is at the 3 to 6 leaf stage. Most fields have had one herbicide application.
 
In the north Interlake crops are less advanced with cereals at the 2 to 5 leaf stage with 1 to 2 tillers; canola 2 to 5 leaf stage with over half of these crops having had their first post-emergent spraying. First herbicide application on soybeans is underway with soybeans in first trifoliate stage. Corn is 2 to 5 leaf and actively growing with the warm weather.
 
 Alfalfa is in the late bud stage and about 45 to 55 cm tall, with first cutting just beginning on hay fields. Alfalfa weevils are present throughout the region, so cutting or spraying are good measures to arrest damage. Seed alfalfa fields are receiving their first insecticide applications.
Pastures are rated in fair to good condition and are could use rain to keep growth adequate. There is adequate drinking water for livestock. Most cattle are on pasture now. Flies are starting to bother the livestock.
 
Some forest tent caterpillars are defoliating poplar/aspen trees in the Interlake allowing for more pasture grass growth.