Crop Report: Issue 9, June 26, 2017


Weekly Provincial Summary 

  • Precipitation was reported in all regions, with amounts ranging from 3 to 29 mm. Some crops in low lying areas are experiencing moisture stress. Cool temperatures have slowed growth of warm seeded crops.
  • Herbicide and fungicide applications were delayed due to cool, windy, and wet conditions this week. Most crops have received one herbicide application, and second applications are just starting. Fungicide applications are mostly complete for winter cereals, and are just starting in spring cereals.
  • There are no major insect issues in field crops, but alfalfa weevil has been reported in the Southwest, Northwest, and Interlake regions.
  • Haying has been delayed by wet conditions, although some producers have been able to make progress. Yields are expected to be below average in some areas of the province.
Southwest Region
Cooler than normal temperatures with overnight lows in the single digits has been putting stress on crop and hay land. Rainfall amounts ranged from 3 to 20 mm. The Oakburn area, which already had saturated soils, received 20 mm of rain and a severe hail storm. Wind and rain made it difficult for spraying to continue.
First application of herbicides is mostly completed and some soybeans are about to receive their second application.
Winter wheat and fall rye fields have finished flowering, most received a fungicide application.
Early seeded cereals are advancing to the flag leaf stage, and some fungicide applications have occurred. Later seeded cereals are tillering.
Early seeded canola is starting to bolt with the majority of the crop having cabbaged out and covering the ground.
Sunflowers and corn continue to advance but cool damp weather has slowed down growth. Soybeans are in the first to third trifoliate stage and cool weather has also slowed their growth. There have been several reports of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybeans and the cool wet weather has made symptoms more severe. Warm weather will help to alleviate symptoms.
Field peas are progressing well, but are yellowing in low spots due to excess moisture.
There are no major insect issues besides the Alfalfa weevil doing damage to several hay fields in the Southwest region. Diamond back moth counts are very low.
Cool and wet conditions have slowed growth of pasture and hay land. Some producers have started to cut alfalfa and first cut yields look to be below average. Most fields have been put up for silage or wrapped for haylage. Alfalfa weevil damage is wide spread and in some cases quite severe. Some spraying has taken place but most beef producers are getting ready to start cutting. Weather conditions having been hampering the start of haying. Pastures are in good condition but need some heat to get things growing. Dugouts are full.
Northwest Region
Showers throughout the week brought 13 to 20 mm of precipitation in Swan Valley and 25 mm in The Pas. Wet and cool weather throughout the week gave little opportunity for spraying. Producers took advantage of the 1 or 2 spray days they had, however this left ruts in fields. Night time temperatures reached down to about 6 degrees in some areas.
Crops in the North West region continue to advance, with the exception of The Pas, where prolonged excess moisture remains the main issue. Soil moisture conditions are excessive with water at the soil surface and less than 10% of the crop is seeded. Producers who carry crop insurance have submitted excess moisture claims. There are a few unseeded fields in the Laurier/McCreary area due to excess moisture but there are hopes of getting a feed crop in if conditions allow.
Canola ranges from 25% at the seedling stage, 70% at rosette, and a small amount of the earliest seeded fields are starting to bolt. Wheat is at 90% seedling/tillering with 10% of later seeded crops at emergence. Soybean, pea and fababean crops are in the vegetative stage. Crops in the Laurier/McCreary and Eastern portion of the Swan Valley are starting to show signs of excess moisture stress. Many crops are also in need of heat. Diamondback moth and Bertha Armyworm moth counts remain low in the North West region and are of no concern at this point.
With the exception of a few fields haying for beef operations has not started. Grasses have been headed out for awhile and alfalfa fields are just coming into bloom. . There have been reports of alfalfa weevil in the Ste. Amelie/McCreary area.
Corn silage fields would benefit from heat particularly after the weekends low night time temperatures. Temperatures near zero occurred in localized low areas near Roblin.
For the most part, pastures are in good condition across the region apart from The Pas. Pastures have been suffering from excess moisture in the Pas and cattle are grazing hayland. As a result, producers are concerned about feed supplies for the winter.
Central Region
Cooler temperatures, with overnight lows in single digits, along with cloudy conditions and showers continue to hamper field activity. Rainfall amounts ranged from 5 to 20 mm for much of the region. Some crops in areas with higher soil moisture are showing signs of excess moisture stress. Precipitation for the season is generally lower than normal; crops are affected by the residual moisture from wet conditions of the previous year. Some reseeding was done in the Crystal City area, as a result of an earlier hail storm. The subsequent poor surface residue conditions left fields at risk to high winds last week, shearing off newly emerged seedlings. Drift soil has filled ditches. Growers affected by those extreme conditions are at a loss as how to proceed; attempts will be made to establish some crop growth to protect fields from further soil losses.
The majority of cereals are growing well. Most wheat fields are in early flag to late boot stage and the most advanced fields are heading out. Barley and wheat are being staged for fusarium headblight fungicide timing. Some fungicide applications at flag leaf timing have taken place; disease pressure has been low due to the earlier dry conditions. Oats are in the flag leaf to early panicle emergence. Cereal leaf beetle has been reported in the Notre Dame area.
Canola fields range from four-leaf to early flower, although some canola was reseeded last week. Fields are being staged for sclerotinia fungicide timing. Many fields, particularly the earliest seeded canola, are stagey due to uneven emergence. Some fields have yellowed/purpling areas due high soil moisture levels. Warmer temperatures and good growing conditions will allow plants to recover from stress. Low levels of blackleg are reported in fields that are commonly subject to early season infections.
Diamondback moth monitoring wraps up this week; numbers are relatively low to date.
Corn is in the V3 to V8 stage. Some fields look spindly, with narrow leaves and poor colour, and would benefit from warmer temperatures. Second herbicide applications continue. Top dressing of nitrogen is being done in some fields.
Sunflowers are in the V4 to V10 stage; flax ranges from 15 to 30 cm tall; peas are starting to flower. Iron deficiency chlorosis is showing up in flax.
Most soybeans range from first to fourth trifoliate. The majority of fields have had first pass herbicide applications; second applications continue. Growers are reminded that the window for herbicides will soon close, as flowering will begin shortly. Yellowing is evident in many fields, although some recovery is noticeable. Warm sunny weather will green up fields; additional nitrogen is not recommended.
Some IDC is also being seen in edible bean fields.
Fall seeded crops in western areas with good winter survival are growing well; fall rye and winter wheat continue to flower, with the most advanced into the milk stage. Most fungicide applications have been undertaken where risk for fusarium head blight warranted.
Weed growth had been somewhat limited by lack of rainfall, but recent rains will bring on new flushes, which may cause some challenges. Crops that are well advanced and covering the ground will be able to outcompete.
Forage growth in pasture and hayfields has improved due to the recent rains. Grasses are headed, and alfalfa is blooming.
Rain has delayed haying. Yields are expected to be lower as stand height is shorter than normal; a function of earlier dry conditions and extended period of below normal temperatures, as well as winter injury. Livestock water supply is adequate.
Eastern Region
Cool and rainy weather prevailed again for most of the week across the Eastern region, with precipitation amounts ranging from 6 to 25 mm. There is not much water on the surface or signs of moisture stress except in low lying areas. Crop and weed development, particularly for warm seasoned species, has slowed considerably. Soil moisture conditions on cropland were rated as 100% adequate. Soil moisture conditions on hay and pasture land were rated at 90% adequate to 10% short.
The first herbicide pass is wrapping up; the second pass is at about 15% complete. Spraying progress was held up by wet and windy weather. There have been some concerns expressed about the speed of herbicide effectiveness for fields sprayed during cool conditions. Some producers are noting volunteer canola escapes after first herbicide applications in soybeans and adjusting product choices in preparation for second pass.
Early seeded wheat is starting to head out with the remainder in the stem elongation/flag leaf stage. Some fungicides have been applied at flag leaf, while some producers have decided not to spray due to the risk of making ruts and a limited return on investment. Early seeded canola is in early flower and approaching fungicide spray stage by the weekend. Later seeded canola is in the bolting stage. Canola has been noted to be in good to excellent condition. Soybeans are in the second and third trifoliate stage. The pace of soybean development slowed last week due to the cool temperatures. Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) has appeared in soybeans over the past 10 to 14 days, with rapid onset across large areas of fields. At this time soybeans are also under stress from herbicide applications and the initiation of nitrogen fixation which makes IDC symptoms worse. Symptoms are starting to alleviate in some fields. Sunflowers are in the V8 to V10 growth stage with some later seeded material in V6. Corn is in the V5 to V7 growth stage. Industry reports have been received of leaves showing symptoms of nutrient deficiency. The symptoms can most often be attributed to the cool, wet weather and slow development rate of the corn. Corn in rotation after summer fallow or canola is displaying the most symptoms, which is expected. Overall, insect and disease levels are low
With last week’s rain producers had a hard time putting up hay, some producers were going to start this week rain or shine. Livestock are doing well on pasture and native pastures are starting to be grazed. Hay fields and pasture are in 80% dood to 20% fair condition. Availability of livestock water was rated as adequate.
Interlake Region
The Interlake received 8 to 29 mm of rain this past week in scattered showers. Topsoil moisture levels in the region are adequate to excellent resulting in some very lush crops with canopies closing in.
 In the south Interlake some early seeded canola is bolting and at 10 to 30% bloom; fungicide applications will start soon. Barley and spring wheat are starting to head out and fungicide applications are starting on these crops as well. Early pea fields are starting to bloom. Cooler temperatures have slowed warm season crop growth, and the temperatures combined with wet conditions have made IDC more pronounced on soybeans. Second herbicide application is occurring on soybeans. Insect pressure has been relatively light in annual crops so far.
In the north Interlake herbicide spraying of crops is about 90% done. Winter cereals are headed out and have had fungicide applications. Canola is still in the vegetative stage and enjoying the intermittent rains. Most soybeans affected by IDC are in the second to early third trifoliate. Warm, sunny weather will allow the crop to start growing at a more rapid rate, and green up; additional nitrogen is not recommended.
 Warm temperatures and variable rains this past week have encouraged hay and pasture development and growth of forages. Alfalfa is in the late vegetative to early bloom stage. Alfalfa weevil larvae and aphids feeding on hay stands have caused delaying of flowering and yield and quality losses. Some alfalfa hay fields and most alfalfa seed fields have been sprayed for insects. Leaf cutter bees are into the second to fourth week of incubation and will start to be released next week.
Pastures are rated in fair to good condition and are supplying adequate feed for this time of year. There is adequate water for livestock to drink.