Crop Report: Issue 13, July 24, 2017



Weekly Provincial Summary 

      •  Hot and humid weather conditions across much of the province are advancing crops quickly. Winter cereals and some early seeded spring cereals are starting to turn.
      • Areas in the Southwest, Northwest and Central regions are well below normal precipitation and would benefit from rain.
      • Thunderstorms brought damaging winds and hail to some areas of Manitoba.
      • Disease and insect pressure remains low across Manitoba.
      • Haying continues, in drier areas rain is needed for pasture and hay crop growth.
Southwest Region
Scattered showers were reported over the past weekend in much of the southwest region. Precipitation varied significantly with 80 mm in Reston, 38 mm in Wawanesa, 34 mm in Boissevain, 21 mm in Brandon, and 2 to 15 mm in the remaining areas of the Southwest. A major storm with heavy wind and hail hit the Miniota and Kenton areas, which caused damage to crops, grain bins, and properties. Most areas of the region are still well below normal precipitation for this time of the year. Crops are in need of moisture in most of the northern and some of the southern areas.
Winter cereals are starting to be desiccated with about 90% at the hard dough stage and low levels of fusarium. Low levels of ergot in fall rye.
Flowering is finishing in early seeded canola while late seeded canola is still flowering. Some blasting reported due to high temperatures and low moisture levels. Disease pressure is low and there are no major insect reports in canola. Bertha army worm counts are getting low.
Field peas are podding well and in some cases fields are ripening prematurely due to dry weather conditions. Aphids have been reported but there is no risk to the crop at this stage of development and natural enemies are controlling them well. No reports of any major disease issues.
Spring cereals are turning fast due to hot and humid weather conditions. Most fields are at the soft to firm dough stage. Fusarium head blight levels are low. Lodging is visible in some fields after the weekend wind storm.
Soybeans continue to respond well to the high temperatures especially in areas with good moisture conditions. Plants are shorter in drier fields. The majority of fields are at the R2 to R3 stage. Leaf disease levels are low.
Sunflowers are starting to flower and are benefitting from the high temperatures.
Corn is thriving but is start to showing signs of stress in dry areas of the region.
Lots of good quality hay is being put up with reports of average yields. Young stands are doing better. Pastures are showing moisture stress with some producers moving cows to other grazing areas or adding some supplemental feed. Dugouts are around 60% full.
Northwest Region
The Northwest Region experienced high temperatures this week and crops are advancing nicely. Rainfall amounts varied with 12 to 20 mm received across the Swan Valley, 13 mm in The Pas, upwards of 70 mm in parts of the Dauphin area, and 8 to 25 mm in the Roblin area. Soil moisture conditions remain somewhat variable within the Northwest Region. Some areas would like precipitation as conditions remain very dry. Soil moisture conditions in parts of the Dauphin area as well as in The Pas have been excessive but are starting to dry, allowing field operations for weed control to take place. The remainder of the region, has adequate soil moisture.
For most of the region the high temperatures noticeably advanced and improved plant growth this week. The exception is parts of the Roblin area where the continuing dry weather is starting to affect yield potential. Approximately 60% of the spring wheat crop is in the heading/flowering stage with the crop entering the milk/dough stage; some early seeded fields are beginning to turn. Canola is well into the flowering stage and approximately 30% are starting to pod. In the Roblin area where soil moisture is inadequate, canola is done flowering. Approximately 50% of the flax fields are flowering while peas are flowering and podding. Soybeans and lentils are flowering. Winter cereals are ripening. In The Pas herbicide and tillage operations are underway on weedy fields. Fungicide applications continue on later seeded crops in the region as crops reach appropriate staging and risk exists. Enhanced scouting for Bertha armyworm larvae in the Durban area is encouraged as trap count numbers have reached the uncertain risk level.
First cut tame forage harvest is nearing completion and yields have been variable across the region ranging from 0.75 to 3 tons/acre. Native hay harvest is underway and dairy second cut is approaching completion. Unsettled weather and humidity caused challenges in putting up hay in good condition in wetter areas across the region including Fork River.
Pasture conditions range from excellent to fair throughout the area as a result of differing moisture conditions with this past weeks rainfall varying from 6.25 to 50 mm. Dugouts are adequate. Foot rot and pink eye are a problem on some pastures.
Central Region
Warmer than normal temperatures for much of the week have resulted in rapid crop growth. Rain and thundershowers were extremely variable throughout the region. Highest rainfall amounts ranged from 20 to 45 mm, although some areas saw only trace amounts. Rain has been welcome for most. Gravel and sand ridges show signs of drought injury. Weekend storms dropped hail in Crystal City-Manitou-Winkler. Winds were strong enough in Manitou to bring down mature trees. High winds caused some crop lodging.
Scattered reports of insect activity and disease presence in crops; but incidence generally low.
The majority of cereals are growing well. Fall rye is drying down; harvest of the earliest fields will start in the next week. Swathing has begun. Surviving winter wheat fields are in the soft dough to hard dough stage with straw drying down. Staging for pre-harvest applications has started. Most spring wheat, barley, and oat fields are in the late milk stage to soft dough. Minor lodging was evident with localized heavy rains and wind, but fields have recovered. Little to no evidence of fusarium head blight symptoms in winter wheat or earlier seeded spring wheat have been reported to date. There is some evidence of cereal leaf beetle. Some spraying of aphids on wheat has occurred in western areas due to elevated populations; monitoring continues.
 Canola fields range from full flower to podding. Mid-late planted canola is suffering from heat and lack of moisture; some heat blasting is evident. Bertha armyworm monitoring continues; numbers are starting to decline, and remain relatively low for most of the region. Scouting continues for bertha armyworm and diamondback larvae in canola fields. Some lygus activity has been noted.
Corn colour and growth has improved with the warmer temperatures and fields are growing rapidly. Tasseling has begun, and some silking is evident. Some fields continue to struggle due to the earlier cold and dry conditions.
Flowering is complete in many pea fields, and good podding and pod fill is evident. Pea aphids have been identified in peas.
Flax continues to flower. Some fields are finished and are in full boll stage.
Soybeans are flowering; earliest seeded fields are in the R2 to R3 stage, and the first pin beans can be found. Most crop has grown through iron deficiency chlorosis symptoms, although yellowing is still evident in some low areas. Root rots are being reported in soybeans, especially in fields with tighter rotations. Rhizoctonia, fusarium root root and phytophthera have been confirmed. Some soybean aphids have been found, but numbers are low and control measures are generally not warranted. Predator insects that aid in keeping soybean aphid levels in check are present at good levels. Monitoring for aphids continues. Some hail damage reported in the Winkler area, with 20 to 30% defoliation.
Edible beans are flowering, and the first pin beans are evident in the earliest fields. Fungicide applications are taking place in fields where canopy closure is imminent and moisture conditions are conducive to disease development. No reports of white mould to date. Hail has been reported in the Winkler area, with up to 30% defoliation.
Sunflowers are as advanced as R5.1. Some basal stalk rot is starting to show up. Scouting and staging continues for head insects and disease.
Thistle caterpillar continues to be monitored in soybean and sunflower; damaging stage is generally finished. There have been a few reports of grasshoppers sprayed on headlands.
Good haying progress has been made aided by hot and windy weather. Pasture and hay growth improved with the heat. Areas that have received adequate rainfall report excellent regrowth, but some areas are quite dry and are still looking for rain. Yields are average to below average. Stand height is shorter than normal. Second cut dairy quality hay has begun in areas of early first cut and where conditions allow, and will continue over the next two to three weeks. Second cut beef quality hay in some western and southwestern areas is nonexistent; a consequence of poor regrowth due to lack of rainfall. Harvested quality is good due to the prevailing drier conditions but the feed quality is only fair due to delayed cutting to gain on yield. Hay is being taken in ditches and on drains.
Livestock water supply is adequate
Eastern Region
Rainfall over the past week varied from 5 to 45 mm, with the majority falling in the Northern parts of the region. Rainfall amounts early in the week ranged from a few mm to more than 25 mm. On Saturday, an intense band of rain moved through Northern districts south of Beausejour adding up to 25 mm of rainfall in a short period of time to areas that had previously received rain. High winds accompanied some of these storms but no reports of crop damage have been received. While there are some areas where standing water is still evident in fields, the land was dry enough to take up a good portion of the moisture received last week. Soil moisture conditions on cropland across the region and were rated as 10% surplus, 80% adequate and 10% Short. Soil moisture conditions of hay and pasture land were rated at 80% adequate to 20% short.
Fungicide and herbicide applications are mostly complete. Scouting for insects continues. There has been very little insecticide application so far as insect activity has been very low.
Spring wheat is in the soft dough stage. Corn is in the V10 to 12 stage with some fields showing tassel development. Good growth occurred this past week due to the warm conditions across the region. Canola is in the pod filling stage with only late seeded canola flowering to any significant extent. Canola condition remains good to excellent. Low levels of diamondback larvae have been detected on many fields but no reports of spraying have been received so far. Soybeans are at the end of R2 or R3. IDC symptoms have been alleviated in most areas, but there are stunted or dead plants in areas with higher water tables. Overall, soybeans are in excellent condition. Foliar and stem disease levels remain quite low but there have been a few fields where root rots have caused moderate to severe stand loss. Soybean aphids have been detected but levels remain well below threshold. A few sightings of green cloverworm larvae have also been reported but defoliation levels in these fields were very low. Most sunflowers are in R4 (inflorescence starting to open) with some isolated plants at early R5 (flowering, less than 10%). Disease and insect pest levels remain low so far.
Haying is in full swing with producers putting up about three quarters of the feed requirements. Livestock have plenty of grass with the timely rains in the past week. Fertilized hay fields are producing average yields, fields with hog manure are above average, and native hay and unfertilized fields are yielding poorly. First cut yield estimates are at 1.5 tonnes/acre for alfalfa, 2 tonnes/acre for grass/alfalfa mixes, 1.75 tonnes/acre for tame hay, and 1 tonne/acre for wild hay. The progress of the first cut of hay is estimated at 20% standing, 5% cut and 75% baled /Silaged. Second cut hay is estimated at 1.5 tonnes/acre. Hay quality is rated as good. Hay fields and pasture are in 80% good to 20% fair condition. Availability of livestock water is rated as adequate, dugouts are 50% full.
Interlake Region
Rainfall throughout the region varied from 3 to 38 mm. Soil moisture conditions are quite variable, and are rated as 95% adequate and 5% excess on cropland and in hay and pastures. Crop yields in south Interlake appear to be above average so far.
 Fungicide applications on canola and wheat are nearing completion however spraying on some late seeded crops is still in process. Canola in many South Interlake fields is in late flowering to early pod while most of North Interlake canola is still full flower. There have been minimal flower abortions in canola. Bertha armyworm counts are still very low and below economic threshold levels. No significant insect pressure in annual crops; good numbers for beneficial or predator insects.
Soybeans are in early to mid-flowering with some pod development. Septoria brown spot is common in the lower parts of the canopy, but hasn’t moved up yet. Some phytophthora and fusarium is evident in susceptible varieties. Corn in the South Interlake is entering the tassel stage.
Peas are podding well, flowering is close to complete. Flax ranges from full flower to full boll stage.
 Winter wheat and fall rye are filling (soft dough stage) and are one to two weeks away from dessication. There is little evidence of fusarium head blight.
Some grass seed crops are being swathed. Pollination of alfalfa seed fields appears to be going well.
Haying had been going well until the rain on the weekend. Second growth of alfalfa is quite good and has been minimally affected by alfalfa weevil larvae damage so far. There are some aphids in the alfalfa stands. Native and grass hay yields continue to increase. Grasshopper damage so far has been minimal. Pastures are in good to fair condition with some rotation of cattle onto ungrazed pastures. There is adequate water for livestock consumption.