Crop Report: Issue 15, August 8, 2017

Weekly Provincial Summary
      •  Moderate to hot weather from past weeks has advanced crops, but also caused some injury in canola.
      • Rainfall occurred throughout the province, but in many areas more is still needed.
      • Harvest has begun in winter cereals and field peas with good yields and quality reported.
      • Insect monitoring is on-going in many crops, but disease incidence remains low.
      • Haying continues, but in dry areas re-growth is minimal and pasture quality is beginning to decline.

Southwest Region
Moderate to normal temperature and timely showers allowed for continued crop development. Rainfall ranged from 15 to 40 mm across the region, with the majority occurring early in the week and topped up on the weekend.
Winter cereals are at the hard dough stage. Desiccation and harvest has occurred in some winter wheat, reporting 65 bu/acre. Fall rye harvest will begin soon.
Early seeded spring wheat and barley are in the soft dough stage. Lodging is visible in some fields due to heavy rain last week. Fusarium levels are low.
Canola is podded, with some fields starting seed colour change. Heat blast and blank pods are noticeable. Some areas have reported spraying to control Diamondback moth and Bertha armyworm.
Field peas are beginning to dry down with some desiccation occurring. Sunflower fields are flowering with no major issues. Corn is at grain filling stage. Soybeans are in the R4 to early R5 stage. Aphids found in soybean, but levels are under economic thresholds.
Recent rainfall will help pastures that have not been overgrazed. Most haying is complete, with producers utilizing slough hay as they dry out. Most hay is good quality. Second cut will be limited. Dugouts are about 60% full. 
Northwest Region
High temperatures continued through the week. Crops are advancing with some heat stress symptoms obvious. Weekend rainfall resulted in 5 to 35 mm across the Swan Valley, 15 mm around The Pas, and up to 25 mm in the Dauphin and Roblin areas. Soil moisture ranges from adequate at The Pas and Swan River to dry through Roblin, and parts of Dauphin.
Crops are advancing quickly, with crop conditions ranging from good, where soil moisture is adequate, to fair in drier areas. Desiccation of winter cereals and fall is occurring and some harvesting has begun. Spring wheat is in the soft to hard dough stage. Canola is podded and in dry areas, aborted pods are showing up. Field peas are advancing quickly with reports of some fields desiccated. Reports of disease and insect activity are minimal, but enhanced scouting for Bertha armyworm and Diamondback larvae is encouraged to assess crop and insect staging as well as economic threshold levels.
Native hay harvest is ongoing and estimated to be 75% complete with above average yields. Wetter areas of the region are struggling to get hay stands cut and baled. Second cut beef quality hay harvest continues with average to below average yields expected in dry areas.
Cereal silage harvest is underway across the region with yields being reported as average to above average. Pastures are in fair to good condition and will benefit from rainfall. 
Central Region
High temperatures continued and rainfall was variable throughout the region with 10 to 25 mm. Some crops are ripening prematurely, on light textures ridges and saline areas. Grasshoppers monitoring has resulted in some control measures.
Harvest began in fall rye and winter wheat with some desiccation occurring.
Spring wheat, barley and oat fields are in soft dough to hard dough. Some barley was harvested, with excellent yield and quality.
Canola is fully podded to 10% plus seed colour change. Sunscald is making crops look riper than they are. Mid-late planted canola has heat blast evident. Scouting continues for Bertha armyworm and Diamondback moth with a few fields in western parts of the region near or at threshold with some spraying reported. Lygus was also seen.
Peas are standing with the most advanced fields turning and some desiccation occurring. Flax fields are in full boll and starting to turn.
Corn is silking, with some fields struggling due to the earlier cold and dry conditions. Soybeans are in the R3 to R5 stage. Root rots are reported with rhizoctonia, fusarium root rot, pythium and phytophthera. Soybean aphids monitoring and some control required due to populations above economic thresholds. Spider mites and some white mould also found. Sunflowers are flowering, at R5.1 to R5.7 stage. Basal stalk rot is evident and scouting continues for head insects and disease with some control used for lygus.
Aphid numbers are increasing in potatoes, as other crops are maturing. Spraying for late blight continues.
Forage seed harvest has started with average to above average yields expected.
Good haying progress has occurred. Areas with adequate rainfall has excellent regrowth. Yields are average to below average. Second cut dairy quality hay continues and second cut beef quality hay has occurred. In dry west and southwest regions, second cut is non-existent due to limited rainfall and poor regrowth. Hay in ditches and drains has been cut.
Pastures are dry and turning brown. Rain needed to sustain pastures and livestock into the fall; supplemental feeding may be required earlier this year.
Livestock water supply is adequate, but some rain would benefit dugout levels.
Eastern Region
Rainfall across the region ranged from 2 to 40 mm with reports of severe isolated thunderstorms, producing heavy rainfall and significant hail. Extent of crop damage still being determined. More rainfall needed to finish soybeans and corn crops. Isolated soybeans wilting on lighter soil textures seen.
Spring wheat is at the hard dough stage. Corn is at the tassel/silking stage. Canola is pod filling with some isolated spots of browning/ripening showing up. Soybeans are in the R4 stage with soybean aphids actively monitored as both aphid and beneficial aphid predator insect numbers continue to build. Sunflowers are R5 or flowering with low disease and insect pest levels.
Haying continues as pastures are starting to dry up. Some producers are moving cattle to where re-growth is good. Greenfeed silage cut with above average yields.
First cut alfalfa yield estimates are 1.5 tonnes/acre, 2 tonnes/acre for grass/alfalfa mixes, 1.75 tonnes/acre for tame hay and 1 tonne/acre for wild hay. The progress of the first cut of hay estimated to be 20% standing, 5% cut and 75% baled/silage. Second cut alfalfa hay is estimated at 1.5 tonnes/acre with grass/alfalfa hay at 1.25 tonnes/acre. Hay quality is rated as good. Hay field condition was rated at 80% good and 20% fair. Pasture conditions was rated at 60% good, 20% fair and 20% poor condition. The availability of livestock water was rated as adequate.
Interlake Region
Crops have advanced quickly with the heat. Rainfall varied from 0.3 to 25 mm, with thundershowers resulting in higher amounts in Teulon/Woodlands/Grosse Isle.
Winter cereals are ripening, with some winter wheat harvested. Yields are lower, as winterkill resulted in poor stands.
Spring wheat and barley fields are ripening with some spring wheat fields desiccated. Early barley yielded 80 to 90 bu/are and good quality. Fusarium head blight is at very low levels.
Canola in the south Interlake has some seed colour change. Flowering in later seeded north Interlake fields is complete. Sunscald is noticeable, making the crop look more advanced than they are. High temperatures have caused gaps in podding in canola in late fields.
Flax is in full boll, with some late seeded fields still flowering. Pea fields are ripening and some harvested in 70 to 80 bushel range. Soybeans are R3 to R5. Soybeans monitored for aphids. Spider mites found at low levels. Corn in south Interlake is silking. Sunflowers are flowering.
Grass seed harvest continues in tall fescue, meadow fescue and timothy. Perennial ryegrass is being swathed and some combined. Alfalfa seed crops monitored for aphids and lygus with some control occurring.
Haying continues, grasshoppers showing up at low levels with limited damage. Second growth of alfalfa hay is good. Native and grass hay growth is stalling with recent heat. More acres hayed due to dry conditions in the low areas. Yields are average to slightly below. Pastures are in good to fair condition with some rotation of cattle onto ungrazed pastures. There is adequate water for livestock consumption.