Peat Moss
Evergreen Bog
Western Peat Moss Limited
Seddons Corner P.O., Manitoba
R0E 1X0
Uncertainty (m)
50 metres
UTM Zone
L.S./Quarter Section
4, 8 9
10 EPM
Sphagnum peat moss is quarried at the Evergreen bog for horticultural use, as a soil conditioner, and as a packing material for the shipments of perishable fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers. Coarse shredded peat moss is used as a stable litter and poultry litter. (Other uses for peat are: in metallurgical and brewing industries, as a deodorant, and as an insulator). Green moss was marketed as floral moss.
The deposit consists of a chain of three bogs extending southeast to northwest, the southern part covering 64.6 hectares, the central part 129.2 hectares, and the northwestern part 32.3 hectares. According to Leverin (1946), the bog has a natural drainage, and further drainage is possible for the southern and central lobes to a creek running in an easterly direction to the Winnipeg River, and the northern lobe to a creek on section line 9, running east into the Winnipeg River.
The surface is covered with a heavy growth of sphagnum and there is only a slight growth of other bog plants. The southern part is open and has a depth of 1.5 m of a mixture of fibrous and humified peat, which becomes less humified as it approaches the centre bog. The latter is covered with trees, mostly spruce 2.4 to 3.0 m high.
The stratum to the 3.6 m level is uniform in composition and of very good quality, low in ash, and of high absorptive value. The peat moss is light yellow/brown, only slightly humified, light in weight, and should yield a good grade of commercial moss. Below this is 0.9 m stratum that is darker and is much humified. The northwestern lobe is somewhat spotty in quality, but good moss is obtainable above the 2.1 m level, similar in quality to that of the central lobe (Leverin, 1946). Results from 10 test holes are reported by Bannatyne (1978).
Chemical Properties: See Bannatyne, 1978 for pH, N, moisture, ash.
Physical Properties: See Bannatyne, 1978 for absorptive value and botanical compositions.
Use: Horticulture moss; some green moss was used for floral moss.
The bog is located approximately 64.3 km northeast of Winnipeg and 26 km east of Beausejour north of Highway 44. It is on leases and patented land controlled by Western Peat Moss Limited.
1943 – The bog was first described by Leverin in 1943, in his “bog North of Highway 1” (now Highway 44).
1950 – Several attempts were made to bring the bog under production by the Molson Peat Co. during the early 1950s, but these attempts did not result in continuous production.
1964 – Another unsuccessful attempt was made by the Northern Plastics Limited on patented land.
1970 – Peat Lease No. 8 was issued to A. Bass, for 7.15 hectares in Tp. 13, R. 10E.
1972 – Peat Lease No. 8 was assigned to Evergreen Peat and Fertilizer Limited in December, 1973. A plant, located in 1.s. 8, Sec. 4, Tp. 13, R. 13E, using a rotary drier, was erected by Evergreen Peat & Fertilizer Limited. A ditch, which drained the bog to the east, was dug in early 1973. The plant was officially opened in the summer. Production is from N½ of Sec. 4, tp. 13, R. 3E, which is patented land; production began in fall of 1972.
1973 – The peat was harvested by mobile bog tractor and hauled to the plant where it was “shredded, cleaned, sterilized, dried and bagged”. It is dried mechanically in an oil-fired drier under mild heat and baled and bagged automatically”. In the winter months, material stockpiled during the summer harvest is used. “Reserves of high quality sphagnum moss (are) sufficient for 50 years production. The product is sold under the company’s brand name “Manitoba’s pride” and also under brokers’ private labels. (Anonymous, 1973).
1976 – Production was stopped in mid-1976 when the company went into receivership.
1977 – The lease was assigned to Western Peat Moss Limited in October. The company acquired 1.s. 12, 13 in Sec. 3; 1.s. 4, 5, 12 in Sec 10 and 1.s. 9, 10 in Sec. 9, all located in Tp. 13, R. 10E, and the road allowances, totalling 113 hectares; this reduced Peat Lease No. 8 was converted to Quarry Lease 125
1950 – Attempts were made to bring the bog under production by the Molson Peat Company in the early 1950s.
1964 – Around 1964 further unsuccessful attempts were made by the Northern Plastics Limited for production of Peat Moss on patented land (probably N½ Sec. 4, Tp. 13, R. 10E).
1972 – The land was assigned to Evergreen Peat & Fertilizer Limited in December. Production began in the fall.
1973 – A plant was built near the bog, the bog was drained, and plant was officially opened during the summer.
1976 – The company went into receivership
1977 – The lease was assigned to Western Peat Moss Limited in October. Because a fire destroyed the company’s screening section of the plant at Julius bog, peat was trucked in and processed at the Evergreen bog plant.
1978 – The Company re-applied for Quarry Mineral Lease 125.
Shipping Point: Evergreen bog
Distance from Mine: 63 km
Material Shipped: Peat Moss
Carrier: CNR
Destination: Winnipeg, United States
*Anonymous, 1973: Evergreen Plant opening at Beausejour; (unknown journal; copy on file); p. 15, 16.
Bannatyne, B.B., 1964: Preliminary Survey of Bogs for Peat Moss in Southeastern Manitoba; Man. Mines Br., Publ. 63-5
Bannatyne, B.B., 1975: The History of Peat Moss Industry in Manitoba; in Campbell, J.D. (q.v.)
Bannatyne, B.B., 1978: Sphagnum Bogs in Southern Manitoba and their Identification by Remote Sensing; unpublished report on File, Man. M.R.D.
Cameron, E. Lee, 1951: Peat Moss in Manitoba; Man. Mines Br. Bull. No. 48-1
Leverin, H.A., 1943: Peat Moss Deposits in Manitoba; Investigations in 1942; Mines and Geology Br., Ottawa, Mem. Series No. 83.
Leverin, H.A., 1946: Peat Moss deposits in Canada; Mines and Geology Br., Ottawa, Rept. No. 817
Smith, R.E. and Ehrlich, W.A., 1967: Soils of the Lac du Bonnet Area; Man. Soil Surv. Rept. No. 15.
Winnipeg Free Press: June 19, 1973; Peat Moss operation underway.
Campbell, J.D., ed., 1975: Proceedings of the Seminar on Peat: a Resource in Manitoba’s Agriculture and Industry; Plant Science Dept., Univ. of Man.
Map 62I,1, Molson (Topo.) 1:50 000; Surveys and Mapping Br., Ottawa
Map 12, Industrial Minerals Producers (Index), 1:1 000 000; Man. M.R.D.
Figure 1, Preliminary Survey of bogs for Peat Moss in Southeastern Manitoba; Bannatyne (1975).
Peat Lease no. 8 was issued to A. Bass in 1970, and covered Sec. 9 and 10, in Tp. 13, R. 10E. It also covered the surface rights to NE¼ 9-13-10E and the SW ¼ of Sec. 10-13-10E. Later in the year, A. Bass applied for the mineral Rights to Sec. 3, 4, 5; Tp. 13, R. 10E., and the surface rights to S ½ of Sec. 4-13-10E and the W ½ of Sec. 3-13-10E.
Peat Lease No. 8 was converted to Quarry Mineral Lease 125, effective 1977, and was reduced in size.
From 1973 to 1976 the entire depth of the good moss was excavated according to Bannatyne (1978). With the fuel cost increase in 1974, this method of production became expensive. The costs by mid-1976 became too expensive for Evergreen Peat & Fertilizer Company to produce, and the company was eventually forced in receivership.
See M.I. cards 52E/13 PEA-1 and 62H/16 PEA-1 for more information on Western Peat Moss Limited.