Women's History Month 2001

Women Working for Healthy Communities - Part 4


Conclusion

Manitoba women have made significant contributions to health care throughout Manitoba's history. The women profiled in this essay showed outstanding leadership and, in many cases, struggled to realize their goals. They not only worked for healthier communities; they also paved the way for their successors. Today, there are more opportunities than ever for women to work for healthier communities. Overall, women provide most of the health care services and support in Canada, with many working in nursing and allied health professions. Today, women can choose careers as physiotherapists, medical technologists, speech therapists, dieticians, dentists or dental hygienists, and doctors.

Where once it was difficult to pursue a career in medicine in Canada and almost impossible to be granted a license to practice, today there are endless opportunities for women to become physicians or specialists. Almost half of today's medical school graduates in Manitoba are women. They are contributing to healthy communities as family physicians, surgeons, specialists, researchers, administrators, and educators. In 1987, three Aboriginal women (Judith Bartlett, Marilyn Cook, and Catherine Cook) graduated as physicians from the University of Manitoba's Faculty of Medicine, and are now recognized leaders in Aboriginal health care in Manitoba.

As we pay homage to the women in our shared history who pursued their dreams of helping others to lead healthier lives, we can also look forward to new opportunities and challenges in our own communities. Today, there are many paths we can take, and many ways in which we can draw on our individual dreams, passions, and energies to benefit those around us.

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Bibliography

General Works

  • Atnikov, Pam, et al. Out from the shadows : a bibliography of the history of women in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Manitoba Human Rights Commission, 1975.
  • Bramadat, Ina J. and Marion I. Saydak. "Nursing on the Canadian Prairies, 1900-1930: Effects of immigration." Nursing History Review, vol. I (1993):105-17.
  • Burtch, Brian. Trials of labour: re-emergence of midwifery. Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994.
  • Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1996.
  • Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996. Available: http://www.indigenous.bc.ca/rcap.htm. Accessed: 25 September, 2001.
  • Carr, Ian and Robert E. Beamish. Manitoba medicine: a brief history. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1999.
  • Chaff, Sandra L. (ed.) et al. Women in medicine: a bibliography of the literature on women physicians. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977.
  • Gibbon, John Murray. Three centuries of Canadian nursing. Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada, 1947.
  • Gold, Judith H., Martine Lalinec-Michaud, and Odette Bernazzani. Pioneers all: womenpsychiatrists in Canada: a history. Ottawa: Canadian Psychiatric Association, 1995.
  • Jack, Donald. "Women in Medicine? Certainly Not!" In Rogues, rebels, and geniuses: the story of Canadian medicine. 1st ed. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada; Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1981.
  • Kinnear, Mary. In subordination: professional women, 1870-1970. Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, c1995.
  • Mitchell, Rosslyn Brough. Medicine in Manitoba: the story of its beginnings. Winnipeg: Stovel-Advocate Press, c1954.
  • Nitychoruk, M. and L.A. Nicolle. "A Brief history of Women in Medicine in Manitoba." Prairie Medical Journal, v. 64, (1994): 6-10.
  • Shroff, Farah M. (ed.). The New midwifery: reflections on renaissance and regulation. Toronto: Women's Press, 1997.

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Dr. Charlotte Ross (1842-1916)

  • Angel, Barbara, and Michael Angel. Charlotte Whitehead Ross (Manitobans in Profile). Winnipeg: Peguis, 1982.
  • Currie, Muriel G. "A pioneer woman in Canadian Medicine." Nova Scotia Medical Bulletin v.33 (1954): 266-7.
  • Edge, Fred. The iron rose: the extraordinary life of Charlotte Ross, M.D. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1992.
  • Hacker, Carlotta. The indomitable lady doctors. Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1974.
  • Douglass, Ellen M. "Dr. Charlotte Ross." Typewritten script of a radio talk given as part of University of Manitoba series entitled Famous Women, (Wednesday, January 3, 1940).
  • Douglass, Ellen M. "A Pioneer Woman Doctor of Western Canada-Dr. Charlotte Ross." University of Manitoba Medical Journal v.18 no.1 (1946).
  • McFarlane, C. Jean. "A Tribute to Dr. Charlotte Whitehead Ross." University of Manitoba Medical Journal v. 53 (1983): 11-12.
  • "The Renegade Dr. Ross: her medical credentials never recognized by Manitoba authorities during her lifetime, Dr. Charlotte Ross nevertheless became a popular prairie practitioner." Medical Post, v. 30 (November 8, 1994): 26.
  • Mitchell, Ross. "The early doctors of Manitoba." Canadian Medical Association Journal v.32, (1935): 92-93.
  • Mitchell, Rosslyn Brough. Medicine in Manitoba: the story of its beginnings. Winnipeg: Stovel-Advocate Press, c1954.
  • Todd, J.O. "Dr. Charlotte M. Ross; Manitoba's pioneer medical woman." Manitoba Medical Bulletin v.77 (1928): 6-7.

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Dr. Amelia Yeomans (1842-1913)

  • Dr. Amelia Yeomans. Winnipeg: Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Recreation, Historic Resources Branch, 1985.
  • Hacker, Carlotta. The indomitable lady doctors. Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1974.
  • Hind, E. Cora. "Amelia Yeomans." (June 1913) Manitoba Messenger: 9.
  • Mitchell, Ross. "The early doctors of Manitoba." Canadian Medical Association Journal v.32 (1935): 93.
  • Mitchell, Rosslyn Brough. Medicine in Manitoba: the story of its beginnings. Winnipeg: Stovel-Advocate Press, c1954.

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Dr. Elizabeth Matheson (1866-1958)

  • Buck, Ruth. The doctor rode side saddle. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974.
  • Buck, Ruth. Dr. Elizabeth Matheson. (October 23 1948) Saturday Night.
  • Buck, Ruth. "Making of a doctor." (Week of February 13, 1967). Montreal Star.
  • Buck, Ruth. "The Mathesons of Saskatchewan Diocese." Saskatchewan History v.13 (1960): 44-62.
  • Hacker, Carlotta. The indomitable lady doctors. Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1974.
  • Kesserling, Margaret. "She prescribed for Indians more than half a century ago." (10 September 1952). (Regina) Leader Post.
  • Leah, Vince. "Elizabeth Scott Matheson was a remarkable woman." (8 March 1950). (Winnipeg) Tribune.
  • Matheson, Elizabeth. "Medical Pioneering in Saskatchewan." Nurses Alumnae Journal (1934): 9.
  • Mitchell, Ross. "Pioneer! Dr. Elizabeth Beckett Matheson, 1866-1958." Manitoba Medical Review v. 40 (1960): 617-619.
  • Mitchell, Rosslyn Brough. Medicine in Manitoba: the story of its beginnings. Winnipeg: Stovel-Advocate Press, c1954.
  • Nitychoruk, M. "100 years have passed since first woman graduated from medical school." University of Manitoba Bulletin v.26, no. 11 (22 October 1992): 6.

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Dr. Margaret Ellen Douglas (1878-1950)

  • Mitchell, Rosslyn Brough. Medicine in Manitoba: the story of its beginnings. Winnipeg: Stovel-Advocate Press, c1954.
  • Copy from Business and Professional Woman (Archival material held in the Faculty of Medicine Archives housed in the Archives, Neil John Maclean Health Sciences Library, Biographical Folder: Douglass, Margaret Ellen).
  • Obituary. Manitoba Medical Review v. 30 (1950): 7.
  • Obituary. Canadian Medical Association Journal v. 63 (1950): 313.

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Dr. Frances Gertrude McGill (1877-1959)

  • Hacker, Carlotta. The indomitable lady doctors. Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1974.
  • Nitychoruk, M. "100 years have passed since first woman graduated from medical school." University of Manitoba Bulletin v.26 no. 11 (22 October 1992): 6.
  • Obituary: Dr. Frances McGill, Crime Pathologist. (22 January 1959). (Winnipeg) Tribune.
  • Obituary: "Miss F.G McGill, Medical Doctor, Police Lecturer Dies". (22 January 1959). Winnipeg Free Press.

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Dr. Elinor Frances Elizabeth Black (1907-1982)

  • "Another view From Africa from Dr. Elinor Black." (28 November 1959). (Winnipeg) Tribune.
  • "Defends doctors who make money." (11 February 1965). Winnipeg Free Press.
  • "Dr. Elinor Black." (12 January 1957). (Winnipeg) Tribune.
  • "Elected president." (17 June 1960). Winnipeg Free Press.
  • "I'm not a ‘lady doctor’ just a doctor." (17 September 1979). (Winnipeg) Tribune.
  • "Canadian professors here on world tour." (17 November 1958). Otago Daily Times.
  • Nitychoruk, M. "100 years have passed since first woman graduated from medical school." University of Manitoba Bulletin v.26, no. 11 (22 October 1992): 6.
  • Obituary. Canadian Medical Association Journal v. 126, no. 1 (1982).
  • Obituary. The Lancet (20 March 1952).
  • Obituary with tributes. University of Manitoba Medical Journal v. 52, no. 1(1982): 5-7.
  • Vandervoort, Julie. Tell the driver: a biography of Elinor F.E. Black, M.D. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1992.
  • "Winnipeg honors go to Dr. Elinor Black". (29 December 1951). Winnipeg Free Press.

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Dr. Phyllis McAlpine (1942-1998)

  • Cox, D.W., S. Povey, and T.B. Shows. "Phyllis J. McAlpine, Ph.D., 1941-98: In memoriam." American Journal of Human Genetics 64 (1999): 1253-4.
  • "50,000 genes bring ‘symbolic’ challenge." (15 July 1987) University of Manitoba Bulletin, p.3.
  • Hamerton, John L. and Albert E. Chudley. "Obituary: Phyllis Jean McAlpine." Genome v. 42, no. 2 (1999): 1-2.
  • "Meticulous U of M scientist vital cell in international human gene project." (10 February 1992) Winnipeg Free Press, p. 31.
  • "McAlpine honoured through research half-day and memorial lecture." (25 February 1999). University of Manitoba Bulletin.
  • "Phyllis McAlpine: Brilliant Teacher and Researcher." University of Manitoba Financial Planner. (Spring 1999). (Archival material held in the Faculty of Medicine Archives housed in the Archives, Neil John Maclean Health Sciences Library, Biographical Folder: McAlpine, Phyllis)
  • "Phyllis McAlpine: Skillful Teacher and Brilliant Researcher." UM Alumni Journal v.59, no. 1. (March 1999).
  • "What's in a name? A gene is a gene." Novum: Research at the University of Manitoba (Winter 1995): 1, 8.

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The Grey Nuns

  • "The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement." Manitoba History v. 11 (Spring 1986): 12-14.
  • King, Dennis. Les Soeurs grises et la colonie de la rivière Rouge, traduction française par Sylvie Léger. Agincourt, Ont.: Société canadienne du livre, 1983.
  • King, Dennis. The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement. Agincourt, Ont.: Book Society of Canada, 1980.
  • Macleod, Margaret Arnett. "The Kidnapping of Sister Ste. Therese." Manitoba Pageant (April 1957): 8-14.
  • Mitchell, E. The Grey Nuns of Montréal at the Red River, 1844-1984, 1987.
  • Mitchell, E. Les Soeurs Grises de Montréal à la Rivière-Rouge, 1844-1984, 1986.
  • Murphy, Sister Mary. St. Boniface Heroines of Mercy. Muenster, Saskatchewan: St. Peter's Press, 1944. (Located in Elizabeth Dafoe Library Archives, University of Manitoba, Call number BX 4366 Z5 M35)
  • Murphy, Sister Mary. "The Grey Nuns Travel West." Manitoba Pageant, no. 1 (1944-45): 3-13.

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Margaret Scott (1855-1931)

  • Beveridge, E. "Early days of the Margaret Scott Mission." In Jubilee bulletin of the Winnipeg General Hospital Nurses' Alumnae Association, edited by Julia Moody and assistant editor Jean Machray. Winnipeg: The Association, 1937.
  • District Nursing in Winnipeg: the Margaret Scott Nursing Mission. Winnipeg, ca. 1929
    (Archival material held in the Manitoba Provincial Archives, Folder: Margaret Scott Nursing Mission).
  • Macvicar, Helena. Margaret Scott: a tribute. The Margaret Scott Nursing Mission. Winnipeg: The Mission, c.1948.
  • McElheran, Archdeacon. The Margaret Scott Nursing Mission. Winnipeg: 1988.
    (Archival material held in the Manitoba Provincial Archives, Folder: Margaret Scott Nursing Mission).
  • Margaret Scott Mission
    (Newspaper clippings from the Winnipeg Tribune, located in Elizabeth Dafoe Library Archives, University of Manitoba, Call number Mss 24 no. 4532).

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Anne G. Ross (1911-1998)

  • Jones-Farrow, Hilary. Anne Ross: Rebel with a Cause [videocassette]. Montreal: National Film Board, 1998.
  • Rizzo, Dee Dee. Mount Carmel Clinic: a history, 1926-1986, edited and revised by B.A. Watts. Winnipeg: Mount Carmel Clinic, 1986.
  • Ross, Anne. Clinic With a Heart: the Story of Mount Carmel Clinic. Winnipeg, 1998.
  • Ross, Anne G. Pregnant and Alone. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978.
  • Ross, Anne G. Teenage Mothers, Teenage Fathers. Toronto: Personal Library, 1982.

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Mary Speechly (1873-1968)

  • Davis, Angela E. "Mary Speechly: A Life of Service." Beaver v. 74, no. 5 (October/November 1994): 35-39.
  • The Mary Speechly Collection (Archival material held in the Elizabeth Dafoe Library Archives, University of Manitoba, Mss Sc 35).

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Dr. Helen Glass (1917- )

  • Helen Glass fonds, 1957-1990 (Located in Elizabeth Dafoe Library Archives, University of Manitoba, Call number Mss 124).
  • "New Nursing Education Facility to be Named after Dr. Helen Glass." Nurscene, v. 24, no. 3, (May 1999): 18-19.
  • Glass, H. "Interventions in nursing: goal or task-oriented?" International Nursing Review, v. 30, no. 2 (1983): 53-6.
  • Glass, H. "Nursing's visions: dreams or reality?" Canadian Nurse, v. 77, no. 1 (January 1981): 18.
  • Glass, Helen. "Primary health care: then and now." Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, v. 32, no. 1 (June 2000): 9-16.
  • Glass, H.P. "Research: an international perspective." Nursing Research v. 26, no. 3 (1977): 230-36.
  • Glass, H. "The Sleeping giant." Canadian Nurse, vol. 78, no. 8 (September 1982): 6-7.
  • Glass, H.P, S.J. Winkler, and L.F. Degner. "Statement on the expanded role of the nurse." Nursing Papers v. 6, no. 2 (Summer 1974): 10-14.
  • Glass, H. "We can fashion the future, but what fashion will we choose?" Nursing Papers v. 17, no. 2 (Summer 1985): 6-10.

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Grace Easter (1955-1986)

  • Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada. Working together for quality nursing care and healing 1975-1995. Ottawa: Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada, 1995.
  • KeKiNan (Our Home) Report: Study to determine the feasibility of a geriatric care centre for the Native elderly in Winnipeg. Winnipeg: Manitoba Indian Nurses Association, Inc. in cooperation with the Indian and Metis Senior Citizens Group of Winnipeg, Inc., 1985.

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