Vaccines are also called needles, shots or immunizations. Vaccines help the immune system learn how to recognize and fight the germs that cause diseases.
Vaccines help protect kids and adults against serious diseases and are known to be very safe. Because of vaccines, not many Manitobans and Canadians get sick or die from vaccine-preventable diseases. Sometimes vaccines may cause minor side effects but these are usually mild (such as sore arm or leg, headache, feeling tired) and usually last only a few days.
The diseases and their complications are far more serious than the possible side effects of the vaccines.
Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living recommends that infants, children and adults get immunized against diseases such as:
These vaccines are important because they can protect against these serious diseases.
Vaccines have been shown to be very safe. Like any other medicine, side effects can occur. No vaccine is 100% effective but they all can protect from disease(s) and serious disease complications.
Remember, talk to your doctor or public health nurse about any concerns you have about vaccines.
The number of doses depends on the age when immunization is started, the type of vaccine and the risk of being exposed to the disease(s) the vaccine protects against. It also depends on the reason for the immunization (ex: preschool boosters at four to six years of age). Some vaccines can be given in one needle while others may need to be given in a series of needles. When more than one needle is required at a time, they are usually given in different locations (ex: one in each leg or each arm).
Current studies show that children do not have a higher risk of side effects when they receive more than one vaccine at a time. In fact, a child’s immune system, which fights and protects against infections, is capable of reacting to thousands of germs every day, even before birth. Giving more than one vaccine not only reduces the risk of children themselves getting sick but can also help protect family and community members from the diseases we immunize against. Most vaccines can protect against more than one disease.
These vaccines are known as “combination vaccines.” Giving combination vaccines at one clinic visit means fewer needles overall. Common side effects such as soreness and swelling are usually limited to where the needle was given.
Vaccines are usually given in the muscle of the thigh in infants or the upper arm for older children and adults. Some vaccines are given just below the skin rather than into a muscle.
Pain and fear associated with needles are usually mild and short lived. While there are no specific techniques (ways) to reduce pain and fear, the following activities may help:
Infants (up to age two):
Toddlers and preschoolers:
Before (Do not begin discussions too far in advance as this may increase fear for some children):
Vaccines may cause side effects that may last for a couple of days. These include redness, swelling and soreness where the needle was given; headache, chills, fever up to 38ºC, drowsiness (being sleepy), fussiness (being cranky), upset stomach and vomiting (especially for young children). Bad or severe side effects should be reported to your doctor or public health nurse.
Vaccine reactions are recorded and monitored in Manitoba and across Canada. That is how we know the side effects from these vaccines are mostly minor. Vaccines offer life-saving protection against many kinds of serious diseases. The benefits of vaccines are far greater than any possible danger or discomfort from side effects.
There are very few individuals who cannot receive vaccines. A doctor or public health nurse may decide not to give the vaccine.
Each situation will be assessed and a decision will be made either to offer the vaccine at the time of the clinic visit, or at a later date.
If you are planning a trip, talk to your public health nurse, doctor or visit your local travel health clinic to see what vaccines may be recommended. Vaccines for travel purposes are not publicly funded by Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living.
No, immunizations are voluntary in Manitoba. But please remember that vaccines help protect you and your child from disease (s) and also help protect others who cannot be immunized because they have certain health conditions. If you want to know more about immunization and why it is important, talk to your doctor or public health nurse.
Recommended Immunization Resources:
A Parent’s Guide to Vaccination is currently being translated into 11 other languages (in addition to English and French).
Available from your local public health or doctor’s office:
Available at local bookstores:
Available on the Internet:
At your local library:
For more information:
204-788-8200 toll-free - in Winnipeg