Module 2 

Module 2 provides an overview of Standards of Care found in The Animal Care Regulation 126/98By the end of this module, you will be familiar with the Industry Codes of Practice. You will be able to relate Codes and Standards to good animal welfare and law, and will also be able to use self-assessment for continuous improvement.



Standards of Care

Standards of care include:
  • euthanasia
  • sled dogs
  • housing unrelated animals
  • prohibition of alterations
  • pet stores - space requirements
  • feeding and watering
  • hygiene
  • health and disease control


Codes of Practice

Section 2(1) of regulation 126/98 incorporates and establishes Codes of Practice and other standards for the care and handling of animals and they are specified as acceptable in Schedule A, B, C and D.

Schedule A

Includes The National Farm Animal Care Council (NFACC) Codes of Practice. NFACC codes are developed with input from veterinarians, scientists, behaviourists and farmers. They are developed for most species and include requirements for animal welfare. Generally, it covers information on farmed animals.

Schedule B

Generally, it covers information on research, euthanasia and commercial use of companion animals. It includes the following documents: 

Schedule C 

Includes standards relating to keeping, using, handling and displaying animals in the course of operating, working in or participating in a circus.
Schedule D
Includes standards for non-domestic animals - reptiles, fish. 


The voluntary practice of Self-Assessment/Audit measures compliance with requirements in law, regulations and Codes of Practice.
When reviewing the particular requirements of your operation, consider how they affect the animal's welfare by using the grading system. Make corrective action notes and implement them. 
Three ways to measure animal welfare include:
  1. Management-based measures - facility specific protocols and procedures, vet protocols, record keeping.
  2. Resource-based measures - space per animal, access to water, condition of facilities.
  3. Animal based measures - body condition, activity levels, cleanliness.
For example provision of water can be measured by:
  • reviewing standard operating procedures (SOPs). Ex: How often are water bowls cleaned? (Management-based measures)
  • ensuring adequate water in bowls (Resource-based measures)
  • observing animals for signs of dehydration (Animal-based measures)
In your Self-Assessment/Audit include document review, facilities and animal observations.

Grading System for Self-Assessment

Compromise Grade:
C: No concerns, compliant Compliant 
NI: Mild to moderate concerns = Needs Improvement 
U: Severe concerns = Unacceptable

Key Message
Be familiar with the Code of Practice relevant to your operation.

Offences in The Animal Care Act

The Animal Care Act establishes General Provisions (Part 7)
 that are considered offences. There are three sections of the act that are important to understand: 

1. Offences

34(1)  A person who contravenes any provision of this Act or an order made under this Act is guilty of an offence and is liable, on summary conviction,
  • (a) for the first offence, to a fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or both; and
  • (b) for subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $20,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not more than 12 months, or both

2. Directors and Officers of Corporations  

34(2)  Where a corporation is guilty of an offence, a director or officer of the corporation who authorized, permitted or acquiesced to the offence is also guilty of the offence and is liable on summary conviction to the penalty for the offence provided in this section.

3. Prohibition of Ownership

35(1) Where a person is found guilty of an offence, the justice may
  • (a) prohibit the person from owning or having possession or control of animals or of a number or type of animals for any period that the justice considers appropriate, including a lifetime ban on an individual or any corporation controlled by the individual
  • (b) direct that any other animals owned by the person become the property of the Crown
Go to Module 3.

For more information, please contact the Animal Care Line, or call 204-945-8000 (in Winnipeg); 
1-888-945-8001 (toll-free).